Theories Of The World-Systematic Perspectives In Identifying Patterns Of How Things Work

Submitted By Nneamaka-O'damn
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Pages: 32

September 4

Theory- explanatory, examines relationships, making sense or coming to understand a “big complex something.” Interpretive in character

Theories of the world- systematic efforts in identifying patterns of how things work. Theories build upon one another. Interpretive frameworks intended to impose order on a phenomena. Theory and research go hand in hand.

Social theory is unusual because it’s not obvious but once pointed out it’s blatant. We view things as second nature. The theorists wrote about the social world that envelops us and frames various beliefs and behaviors. “The discovery of society.” There is a coherence and order in the way society works that matters.

September 9


3 elements/links/components in the relationship between the division of labor and the wages of labor. IDENTIFY AND EXPLORE! 2-3 pages….

Theorists are embedded in the world that they are trying to discuss. Use selection and specification when formulating their theory. Theorists react to other theorists and the world around them. All the theorists in this class span from the revolutions in Europe through wwii and into the middle of the 20th century. This period is called the long 19th century. (1770s-1920s) they were living through a transformation in society, and the society was in crisis! Focusing in class on three transformations- democratic revolution (French and American revolutions), the industrial revolution, [the two revolutions] and the rise of the market. Elements theorists concentrate on in these transitions – self regulating market, industrialization (industrial capitalism), the modern state ( in terms of being a more centralized apparatus and the emergence of mass politics {electoral engagement}) the emergence of new and prominent social classes.

Adam Smith Reading #1

The Scottish enlightenment (smith is an exemplar of)

· Hume- investigated morality/human nature and politics

· Smith engaged Rousseau (turned the tables on him) Smith- society taught man to be good Rousseau- society perverse of man. Smith thinks that what defines humanity is sympathy squared (putting yourself in someone else’s shoes) Wealth of Nations was seen as a violent attack towards Britain’s economic processes. (Rooted on the mistaken belief that strength lay in the hoard of metal. Smith said that hoarding wealth was problematic)

Smith is a system builder and characterizes a ‘good’ society. Smith suggests that the foundation of a society is economy, and what is critical about the economy is labor. Smiths suggests that the division of labor is critical because it lets the same amount of people do more. (pin example) Division of operations. Increases in dexterity, save time, invent machines which facilitate labor. Opulence extends to all workers. Division of labor progresses because individuals have a propensity to truck, barter, and trade.

Individual intent and collective outcome. (unintended consequences)

Truck, barter, exchange

· Human nature drives these

· Engage in exchanges because it’s meeting some need and it is to an advantage

· Willingness to look for the better deal

· Makes the use of talents useful- we would have no need to develop talents if we did not truck barter or exchange. We utilize the talents of others because of truck barter and trade.

Pursuit of interest and advantage leads to the division of labor. It is in my own advantage to divide labor to make more stuff, so one can secure more produce of others. One must produce over what they need to consume.

Market- a system of social relationships based on exchanged for the result of gain

The division of labor is always limited to the extent of the market.

· Exchange and the market drive the division of labor.

· Production vs. distribution (a function of exchange)

· Labor only goes