Classes are only found in the Capitalist societies
Class is defined in relationship to the ownership of the means of production
There are only 2 classes
1) Property owners/ capitalists/ Bourgeoisie (people who own wealth)
2) Workers/ Labor/ Proletariat (who don’t own wealth
Determinant of class therefore
1) Wealth ownership or non ownership
2) Class awareness or class consciousness if workers lack class awareness or consciousness then they suffer from false consciousness, there these are not class, but social groups
3) Class conflict: competition demonutoationte war between two classes
The Functionalist Perspective
The idea that a society reminds us a living biological organism, consists different parts that work together to promote- social stability.
* social elements/ institution which function together promote social stability, that whenever there is anything which is socially accepted, the whole society- it promoter peace, harmony and social stability.
Founders are Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, August Comte and Robert Kline Merton.
* Robert Kline Merton : made this theory sophisticated by introducing 3 important concepts.
1) Manifest Function: the intended, recognized official, stated the obvious function always positive.
2) Latent Function: can be negative or positive
3) Dysfunction: a condition, which disrupts the system it is viewed as a temporary problem. – Always negative
-Believes that society is moving from traditional stage to modern stage. ( the idea of progress inevitability of progress
1) the functionalist perspective is inherently conservative and is against rapid social reforms- even when such reforms are necessary or inevitable (EG) Civil rights movement
2) This theory is optimistic about the future: it is ahistorical and merely praises the status quo - (present conditions)
Perhaps this is why it is loved by the rulers of our countries
Meaning of Sociology : scientific stydy of Human Sociology and Social Behavior sociology uses scientific Method: 7 steps involved in scientific method.
2) formulation of problem
3) collection of data
4) analysis and classification of data
6) formulation testing hypothesis
7) retesting and reformulation of