1.) What Organisms make up the world of microorganisms? bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, viruses and protists 2.) When we talk about “germs,” what do we mean? Most people know that bacteria and viruses can act as “germs” and cause disease. Because of this it seems perfectly acceptable to try to wipe all of the germs out of our environment by using antibacterial agents (found in everything from hand soap to sweat socks) and antibiotics. 3.) How do bacteria benefit the environment? They are responsible for recycling nutrients in our soil and purifying our water. 4.) How can bacteria be good for our health? Good bacteria inside us destroy invasive, harmful bacteria, and without the good bacteria, the bad ones can slip in and easily cause us problems. 5.) Describe some ways that bacteria can be used in industry? Products such as Xanthan Gum (a food thickener) are harvested from bacterial producers. Most of vitamin B12, riboflavin, and Vitamin C are produced by bacterial fermentation. 6.) How do antibiotics get into the environment and then into the organisms? There are several routes of entry of antimicrobial agents into the environment. Sewage, Medical Waste, Production, Household Products, Sprayed on crops, Animal production. 7.) A.) Describe some ways that bacteria can acquire resistance to antibodies? Conjugation. Bacteria can fuse and exchange plasmids and sometimes chromosome fragments.
Transfection. Viruses can infect bacteria and fungi, passing along genes from one infected organism to the next. Transformation. When a bacterium lyses in its environment, any other actively-growing bacteria in that vicinity can pick up its DNA
B.)The article criticizes the use of antibodies for diseases like the common cold and the flu. Explain why the author opposes the use of antibiotics in these cases. Do not seek antibiotics for the treatment of viral infections such as the common cold, sore throat, bronchitis, or flu. Antibiotics have no effect on viral diseases. Taking antibiotics improperly simply leads to more antibiotics in the sewage and a buildup of antibiotic resistant bacteria in your microbiota.
1.) What effect does the use of antibacterial agents have on our environment? Hypothesize how the agents will affect the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibacterial agents can now be found in antibacterial soaps, cosmetics, antiperspirants, toothpaste, clothing. The overuse of antibacterial products in the home has shown to cause chronic health effects such as endocrine disruption and allergies. The Hypothesis theorizes that being overly hygienic and killing off good bacterial exposure, can actually increase the chance of developing allergies and asthma. Studies have found that children who were exposed to more dirt and germs experienced less allergies in adulthood, compared to children who grew up in cleaner environments 2.) How many products do you know about that are manufactured with the help of bacteria? Cheese is made with the help of microorganisms along with yogurt, bread (yeast), dill pickles, beer, wine, soy sauce (fungus) and much more. Each product is made with a different microorganism such as bacteria, or a type of fungus. 3.) Imagine what might happen if bacteria that play a role in each category listed under the article’s “Beneficial functions of microorganisms” were destroyed. For example: If you lost all your beneficial bacteria from your intestines, what would happen? Your intestines contain beneficial…