Discrimination and Harassment Discrimination can be best defined as an individual or a group being treated less favorable than others mainly in part because of their race, national origin, sex, age, disability, religious beliefs and sometime sexual preference. Harassment on the other hand is a type of discriminatory act or conduct where an individual is singled out and unwillingly subjected to unwanted behavior by another because of their race, sex, age, national origin, religion, and disability. Discrimination and harassment are both illegal and unwarranted behaviors or treatments that have been imposed on specific individuals or groups for many of years since 246 years ago before slavery was abolished to Hitler’s Nazi Germany anti-Semitism era (Bennett-Alexander & Hartman, 2009, p.98). People from all walks of life have endured discrimination and harassment in one type of form or another rather it be race, sex, or national origin. For this reason alone many lives were sacrificed in creating and enacting the single most powerful piece of legislation as Bennett-Alexander et al stated, “ that has helped to shape and define employment law rights in the history of the United States” , The Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (2009, p.97). The United States is a “melting pot” and because of this all people who live in here should be treated equal, not according to race, sex, or national origin. Discrimination and harassment of any form is not only illegal, but intolerable as well. The most common form of discrimination is race and dates back as far as 264 years ago till the beginning of the 20th century when blacks were treated unequal and with disrespect as oppose to whites. Race discrimination is not specifically limited to one race, blacks. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has stated five racial categories which are the following: American Indian or Alaska native; Asian; Black of African-American; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; and White with only one ethnicity category, Hispanic or Latino (Bennett-Alexander , 2009, p.268). This type of discrimination as well as new forms are still very prevalent today, not just in the United States amongst blacks but interracial marriages, increased immigration and racial demographics as well and in other countries around the world. The laws that prohibited certain races from having the same rights as others caused their civil rights to be denied (e.g. voting, employment, education, home ownership). Even after the passage of Brown v. Topeka Board of Education many blacks were still being subjected to harsh acts of harassment. It was not until after the historic March on Washington led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. during his famous “I Have a Dream “speech that things took a dramatic change in the acts of discrimination. In 1964 legislation passed and President Johnson signed Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which set a precedent for other anti-discrimination laws all over the world (Bennett-Alexander et al, 2009, p.101). Although the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 pertains mainly to employment, it also represents a much greater legislative law (Bennett-Alexander et al, 2009, p.101). Race was the primary reason for the passage of this law and therefore it is the first prohibited category in the Title VII (Bennett-Alexander et al, 2009, p.258). It also applies to on the legal basis of discrimination that education, public accommodations and federally assisted programs are equal made equal to everyone and not based on the race, sex, religion, national origin, and disability (EEOC, 2011). An employer can be held liable for racial harassment just as so with racial discrimination. Racial harassment is considered any conduct that is unwelcomed and based on race. Employer can be held liable for this type of behavior if the employee can prove that based on race the conduct was undesired, so severe or pervasive that is changed the…
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
September 2, 2012
How would Americans feel if there were not equal rights in the United States? Civil Rights are basic legal rights a person must possess. They are rights that constitute free and equal citizenship which includes personal, political, and economic rights. (Stanford 2012 Encyclopedia of Philosophy). According to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, all Americans are entitled to equal rights. There are many cases of how African Americans…
Little rock 101
1957 civil rights act
1960Greensboro, N. C.; segregated lunch counters;
Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee organized
1963March on Washington, MLK’s “I have a Dream
1964 Civil Rights Act
1965Voting Rights Act of 1965; Twentyfourth
Amendment (banned poll tax)
1966Black Panthers: militant group
1968MLK, Jr. assassinated; led to rioting in 60 cities;
19401950: Increase in college enrollments from GI Bill…
The Civil Rights Movement
April 1, 2012
In the mid-1950s to the late 1960s, African Americans struggled with the civil rights movements. Their African American goals were to achieve the rights equal to that of the Caucasian race which included equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education, as well as the right to vote, the right of equal access to public facilities, and the right to be free of…
story of how the American Republic developed from colonial beginnings in the 16th century, when the first European explorers arrived, until modern times.
History of the United States: Continued
The Civil Rights Movement Begins
In the 1940s and 1950s the NAACP attacked race discrimination in the courts. It chipped away at Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), a Supreme Court decision upholding segregationist laws. The NAACP lawyers' greatest success was the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision…
CHAPTER 5: CIVIL RIGHTS AND PUBLIC POLICY
Multiple Choice Questions
1. In which amendment does the phrase “equal protection of the laws” appear?
2. What are the three levels of scrutiny used by the Supreme Court to discover whether discrimination is permissible?
a. Reasonableness, inherently suspect, and the intermediate standard
b. Reasonableness, inherently suspect, and grossly discriminatory
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), p.128 U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates the Fourteenth amendment’s guarantee of equal protection
Civil rights, p. 121 The government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals.
Civil Rights Act of 1965, p. 132 Wide-ranging…
Chapter 5 Notes (pg. 151-165)
Civil Rights and Public Policy
Politics in Action: Launching the Civil Rights Movement
Rosa Parks, a 42-year-old seamstress and member of the NAACP, got arrested on a Montgomery, Alabama city bus on December 1, 1955. The bus driver was J.F. Blake. This sent the civil rights movement into high gear. Her refusal to give up her seat led to extensive mobilization of African Americans.
MLK organized a boycott of the city buses. It took the US SC to end the boycott.…
Brianna Martins May 18, 2014
US History II (H) Period 3
Civil Rights Essay
The Civil Rights movement has changed conditions and opportunities for African- Americans all across the country, specifically in Newark. Although many feel that even though the Civil Rights Act was put into place segregation and injustice against minorities would still continue, in reality, today the discrimination of these people is subdued. Despite the arguments that the conditions for African-Americans…
Name __Cecile Wijnen______ Period __4___ Due on _4/24_
Civil Rights – Chapter16 page 438
1. What issues were raised with respect to Elizabeth Brose in the Seattle school case?
The issues raised were busing and integrating students into schools based on their race, without a court order. Parents who’s children were placed into the unfavorable school of their liking complained. Eventually Brose and pursued the case in the courts.
2. How did the Supreme Court rule in this education case?
In this education…
Webquest: The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950’s and 60’s Directions: Use the websites to
answer each of the following questions. Each correct response is worth 4 points.
1. What role did Medgar Evers play in the Civil Rights movement?
● He became the first state field secretary of the NAACP in Mississippi.
2. Who assassinated Medgar Evers? Why was he killed? \
● Byron De…