I had never really thought about the exact process of how DNA is actually replicated, I remember learning about it briefly in high school, but I was never really interested. However, now that I actually understand all the processes leading up to DNA replication and genetics, it makes it much more interesting. Way back in 1953 Watson and Crick wrote two papers about how they thought DNA replication might work. They predicted that first hydrogen bonds connecting the two strands of the DNA molecule are broken. When this occurs, the two strands separate and then each strand is used as a blueprint for the construction of a new DNA strand. Once this process is completed, there are two identical copies of the original DNA. Watson and Crick also predicted that each of these new copies of DNA contained one “old” strand and one new strand. I think of it like a piece of rope. You can pull the strands of a rope apart and when you do so you get two strands of a rope. Each strand of that rope then creates a new copy so that there are two strands again. Each rope now contains one strand from the original rope and one strand that was created. Hope that gives you a better picture visually of what is actually going on in DNA replication, however that example makes it sounds like it is a simple process, however DNA replication is complex. The main enzyme in DNA replication is called DNA polymerase and more than a dozen of these enzymes and other proteins are needed in order to unwind, stabilize, and separate the strands. And on top of all that, enzymes are especially important is getting the replication process started and afterward “proofing” the completed DNA strand and finally joining the new and old strands together. It amazes me how our body can create so many new strands of DNA with so few mistakes in a matter of hours. The process is actually very…
April 10, 2012
Title: MU Researchers find Identical DNA Codes in Different Plant Species
Source: Biology News
Date or Article: April 9, 2012
Summary: This article is about how scientists at the University of Missouri found identical DNA codes in different plants. They used a new computer program called algorithm to find these strands. Like animal DNA that has some identical copies scientists could never find in plants, until now. This understanding…
Topic 1 2012 Basic Nucleic Acid Isolation, Manipulation and Analysis
DNA and RNA easily purified but as whole cellular populations, not specific sequences.
RNA preps. can have significant DNA contamination.
DNA in plasmids or phage can be purified selectively.
Oligonucleotides can be synthesized chemically but efficiency and purity decrease with length. Also, product has 5’ –OH after de-protection. Variants can be made with unnatural bases or variations on phosphodiester…
DNA, Genes and Chromosomes
Genetics is the field of study that is concerned with heredity and the numerous variations in organisms. This includes DNA, genes and chromosomes which are the three main sub-topics within genetics and are related to each other in a unique way.
Deoxyribonucleic acid also known as DNA is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms which contain the biological instructions that make each species unique. DNA is inherited from a person’s mother and father…
Unit 8 Study Guide
1. What is DNA short for and what is its definition?
Deoxyribonucleic acid the genetic material of a cell
2. What DNA discovery happened in 1950 and who discovered it?
Erwin Chargaff-that the amount of guanine always equals the amount of cytosine, and the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine, these are known as Chargaff’s rules
3. What DNA discovery happened in 1951 and who discovered it?
Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins when an x-ray passes…
* Gregor Mendel had no experience with DNA – did pea pod experiment
* Proteins at one point were considered as the genetic material
* Miescher: found a phosphorus rich substance in puss cells
* Levene: isolated 2 types of nucleic acids
* Hammerling: worked with acetabularia. (Reciprocal graft experiment)
* Griffith: wanted to make a vaccine.
* Worked with Live S strain and R strain.
* A chemical substance from one cell is capable of genetically transforming another…
A- DNA replication
DNA replication is a biological process by which a molecule of DNA is copied. This
process starts at the origin of replication where the double helix of the parental DNA is being unwound by the helicase in two separated strands. Then, single-strand biding proteins bind on the unpaired strands keeping them from repairing. The topoisomerase helps relieve the strain by breaking and swiveling the DNA strands ahead of the replication fork. The primase synthesize a short stretch…
responsibility for posting refined answers to the guided readings - succinct, relevant, clear, and with pictures or a video to compliment.
When contributing to the reading guide, follow these steps:
1) First complete the reading guide on your own from the DNA unit page.
2) Write your response to a question in word and then copy it. Be sure to upload pictures and/or video for each question.
3) Click on the edit button and then go to the appropriate question and paste your answer below it. Sign your contribution…
different types of bacteria based on their DNA sequence. Not long ago, DNA sequencing was a time-consuming, tedious process. With readily available commercial equipment and kits, it is now routine. The techniques used in this lab are applicable in a wide variety of settings, including scientific research and forensic labs.
• Prepare a sample from a patient and isolate whole bacterial DNA.
• Make many copies of the desired piece of DNA.
• Sequence the DNA.
• Analyze the sequence and identify…
sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
Nitrogenous base- an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
Purine- a nitrogenous base that has a dou- ble-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
Pyrimidine- a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two gen- eral categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cyto- sine…