Second stage of Qing Rule :
Large rent system
Aboriginal large rent
Large land holdings/ small land holdings
Aborigines large rent system 1767 – system put by Government of China:
Allow Han Chinese to rent from aboriginal tribal lands, thus the aborigines could receive a certain income.
This system was already been practiced by Fukien peasants before migrating to Taiwan, and with their migration, they brought this in with them. And this was first practiced by the Han settlers in Taiwan and then it was applied to the aboriginal population.
To prevent land conflicts between mountain aboriginals, plain aboriginals, and Han Chinese.
Large land holdings/ small land holdings :
Large land owners (landlords) : are those who pay land taxes to the state, and hold patent right to their lands. (pay taxes/ patent land right)
Small land owners : real workers in the land, they pay a fixed rent to the large land owner.
Because they could not afford the large land rents, thus they sub-rent their lands to other peasants.
Since they also have the permanent tenancy, they could sell the lands, or rent to others.
Impacts of this split ownerships of lands :
It leads to dispute over lands, originally the government thought they could solve the problems of the conflicts on the lands, therefore it makes confusion of who actually owns the lands.
Also it is hard for the original landlord to remove the tenants, or to interfere in the farming operating, since the original landlords usually lives far away from their lands thus they have weak connection to their land.
The tenant have greater connections, since they invest in the lands, and hired workers to work for them on the land, in this way they were more familiar to the land’s management.
Conflicts---> ends with communal strike
Peace and Security :
Qing government tried to secure property rights for the aboirignals and the Chinese settlers, and to prevent conflicts between them.
The new property system seems satisfactory to all parties.
For aboriginal land holders, they could receive a fixed income, without doing agriculture work, and to Chinese they pay lands so they could sub-lend, and government could receive revenues- in this way everyone happy
Important Notes: rising of local land elite, local strongmen communal strike between people from Chuan Chou and Chang-Chou (both Fukienese )
3 major land leasing landlords : 3 specific families
Zhang Family (Taipei) ancestor from Chuan Chou
Pan family (Aborigines- chunghua) Local aboriginals
Lin family (Wu-feng closed to taichung)Zhang Chou
Both Zhang and Lin originally rented lands from aboriginal families, so they have tribal lands to work on.
As they sub-lend it to others, it helped them to become wealthy.
Pan family rewarded by government during Dajiaxi, as they helped the government to fight against the villages, this helped the Pan family to accumulate more lands than they originally owned. made them big owners.
Lin family exported rice to Fukien, and importing goods from mainland to Taiwan, and opened up a dyeing factory.
GongGuan公館 : land mansions built by large landlords to maintained their power. Lives by the rich people
Lin became highest descendent obtain official position
Lin Shuang Wen Largest Han Chinese rebellion
Invested lands and become landlords, originated from Chunghua.
Got involved with secrete society and was voted to be the leader of the society ‘heavy and earth society ’
Rebellion broke out, when 2 followers from other villages acme to Lin shuangwen’s village and people in the heavy and earth society pity these 2 people and accepted them, but they persuade Lin Shuangwen to go against the government
The scale of the rebellion was so large that Qing government had to move the military force from Zejian and Fukien to the island 2 times
Qing recruited people from Quan Chou and Hakka, and…