Technology: Arpanet Essay

Submitted By ElyasMohamedd
Words: 1752
Pages: 8

Internet Technology

I. Internet Technology

Studying history of Internet shows us again how users shape technological systems; also allows us to explore complex (but interesting) world of technical standards
Recall that standards are important because they assure consumers that there will some compatibility for competing technologies worldwide
Standards are equated with product equality, reliability, safety, efficiency and interchangeability
DE FACTO standard: usually first “standard” out on market that is followed for convenience
Internet is large and complicated system local computers hooked up to regional, national and international computing systems each computer is “node” on the network, and all computers connected to each other through variety of technical means such as fiber optic cables, microwave transmissions or satellite technology computers communicate with each other by using machine language standards such as TCP/IP protocol messages are transmitted through packet-switching, whereby information is broken up into bits and transmitted according to computer capacity packets are labeled with a final destination address, and are finally reassembled at receiving computer while messages automatically routed, they are managed by systems’ administrator who makes sure machinery is functioning

II. Packet-Switching Technology

development of Internet starts with creation of ARPANET in the 1960s happened within the United States Department of Defense (DOD)
Advanced Research Project Agency ([D]ARPA), a division of DOD, was given mandate to create new communications system that would connect various computing research communities across the country; wanted system that would be able to withstand possible attack network originally intended to aid scientists who were having difficulties running programs on remote computers what was created was ARPANET, a decentralized communications system based on packet-switching technology that allowed for reliable data communications technology based on military goals of survivability, flexibility and high performance this was in contrast to more commercial goals such as low cost, simplicity or consumer appeal packet-switching technology developed in both the United States (Paul Baran) and Britain (Donald Davies) in mid 1960s
Baran: believed conventional communications systems (i.e. telephone network) was too concentrated and hierarchal
For instance, circuit switching technology used for telegraphy and telephony whereby messages send through a “fixed” route destroying on part of system would therefore cause problems all over
Baran wanted digital system where message labeled and then passed through network (i.e. post office); nodes determine routes automatically and there is no need for human intervention packet switching: digital packets that act like message blocks
This kind of system was a distributed system whereby messages would be “packeted” and send via different routes redundant components of system compensate for any failures
Davies: different priorities; wanted to improve interactive computing did not envision system for military use; thought new network could compete for business market despite fact that idea for packet switching occurs almost simultaneously, Davies never able to build national network, techniques don’t go beyond National Physics Lab more successful in US because British institutions were eager to create viable commercial technology did so at expense of further research and development
Britain only begins working on packet-switching services in 1970s but by this time, using American technology in contrast, individuals like Baran working within umbrella of US military were left alone with ample resources to eliminate “kinks” in the technology allowed technology to mature political and cultural climate within key British institutions thus inhibited growth of packet switching technology in country