As mentioned in an article from Cleveland clinic, to control metabolism, the thyroid produces hormones, T4 and T3, which tell the body's cells how much energy to use. A properly functioning thyroid will maintain the right amount of hormones needed to keep the body's metabolism functioning at a satisfactory rate. As the hormones are used, the thyroid creates replacements. The quantity of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream is monitored and controlled by the pituitary gland. When the pituitary gland, which is located in the center of the skull below the brain, senses either a lack of thyroid hormones or a high level of thyroid hormones, it will adjust Thyroid- stimulating hormones (TSH) and send it to the thyroid to tell it what to do.
Thyroid disease is quite common. When the thyroid produces too much hormone, the body uses energy faster than it should. This condition is called hyperthyroidism. When the thyroid doesn't produce enough hormones, the body uses energy slower than it should. This condition is called hypothyroidism. There are many different reasons why either of these conditions might develop. The data from Cleveland clinic shows that nearly 20 million Americans have some sort of thyroid disorder. As mentioned by Klein and Danzi in the article “Thyroid Disease and the Heart,” current estimates suggest that it affects as many as 9% to 15% of the adult female population and a smaller percentage of adult males.
Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is not active enough. According to Cure Search, this is the most common thyroid problem seen in children’s cancer survivors. When the thyroid gland is underactive, thyroid hormone levels are low and the body’s metabolism slows down. As mentioned by Sklar from ABC News Some of the symptoms of Hypothyroidism are sudden weight gain, dry skin, hair loss, forgetfulness, fatigue, frequent chills, constipation, and irregular period. An article from Mayo clinic states that “Hypothyroidism may be due to a number of factors, including:
Autoimmune disease. People who develop a particular inflammatory disorder known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis suffer from the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Autoimmune disorders occur when immune system produces antibodies that affect the thyroid's ability to produce hormones.
Thyroid surgery. Removing all or a large portion of your thyroid gland can diminish or halt hormone production. In that case, you'll need to take thyroid hormone for life.
Radiation therapy. Radiation used to treat cancers of the head and neck can affect thyroid gland and may lead to hypothyroidism.
Medications. Lithium, which is used to treat certain psychiatric disorders, can contribute to hypothyroidism.”
Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is too active. In this condition thyroid hormone levels are high and the body’s metabolism speeds up. Farwell has stated in an article “Thyroid Disorders” that the symptoms of hyperthyroidism is nervousness, weight loss, irregular heart rate, heat intolerance, insomnia, muscle weakness, and goiter.
Causes: As per an article by Mayo Clinic are, “This may occur for a number of reasons, including:
Graves' disease. Graves' disease, an…