3.2.3 Neighbourhood factors
Everyone has a duty to avoid injuring others. This is the other side of the neighbourhood factors. For instance it is argue that the strict liability tort wherein a person is made liable even if he is without fault. This strict liability often exist in inherently dangerous activities or activities vested with public interest such as products liability, explosives and keeping of dangerous animals. Another is as regards persons who are made liable for the negligent acts of incapacitated persons under their care such as guardians and parents. They have not done anything to injure others and most of the things for which they are made liable happen beyond their control, but the state makes them liable for the damages caused because no one else may be made liable.
3.2.4 Social policy
Policy is shorthand for public policy considerations. Policy considerations were recognised in the Wilberforce test and the test in Caparo v Dickman. Arguments that an extension of liability for negligence would lead to a flood of litigation or to fraudulent claims were once granted greater credence than they are today. But other arguments, such as the possible commercial or financial consequences, the prospect of indeterminate liability, the possibility of risk spreading (e.g.,