Task 1 (P4)
* A puppy undergoing a routine castration
Equipment used: anaesthetic monitors, anaesthetic mask, endotracheal tube, shaver, drapes sterile surgical pack which will include - gauze sponges, scalpel handle, scissors and needle holder, clamps, suture needle, forceps and scalpel blade,
People that are involved: Veterinary surgeon and a veterinary nurse, there may also be others that will be on hand to help.
Pre – before castration begins the puppy is given a full health check to ensure that it is fit and healthy as this can identify any problems that could affect the anaesthetic. Also the puppy will get weighed so that they know how much of the drugs they need to give the puppy. Before they start surgery they will clip and shave the puppy’s hair of where the surgical procedure will take place. Once the shaving is done the surgical area is cleaned ready for the operation to begin.
Peri – During the castration a qualified veterinary nurse will monitor the anaesthetic. They will also monitor the puppy’s breathing, heart rate and pulse rate, oxygen level, carbon dioxide level and membrane colour. This is so that if there are any problems they can be detected quickly and then be sorted. To monitor the puppy the nurse will use an anaesthetic monitor. Whilst the nurse is monitoring the puppy the veterinary surgeon will begin the procedure. To help with the procedure the veterinary surgeon will use tools from the sterile pack this will include using the clamps to help position the drapes, using the scalpel handle and blade to make the incision and to help stitch the puppy back up they will use the suture needles.
Post – Once surgery is complete the puppy is then left to recover from the anaesthetic with a nurse closely watching. Whilst recovering the puppy will be kept warm using things such as blankets and a heat pad. Whilst the puppy is recovering the endotracheal tube that was put in before the procedure stays in until the puppy is able to use its swallow reflexes again. Once it has got its reflexes back the puppy will be put back into it kennel where it will get monitored until the puppy has recovered and is on its feet, this could take up to an hour.
* A cat being anaesthetised for an exploratory laparotomy
Equipment used: anaesthetic machine and endotrachea tube
Pre – before anaesthetic can be administered the cat isn’t allowed to eat for 12 hours prior to the surgical procedure as during the operation they can vomit if not fasted. The cat once at the veterinary surgery has to be weighed to conclude how much drugs should be administered. Give the cat a health check as any abnormalities noticed and nee to be anaesthetised for them the veterinary surgeon may also do this whilst the cat is being castrated.
Pre anaesthetic check – before the cat can be anaesthetised the veterinary surgeon will do a pre anaesthetic check, which will include checking the function of the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system, feel the abdomen and superficial lymph nodes, they will take the temperature of the cat, give it a health check and administer a premedicant. All of these will be done by the veterinary surgeon.
Induction – in the induction stage the cat will go from being conscious to unconscious, this can take a matter of seconds. Induction can be done a few ways which include – the anaesthetic mask and inhaling it, it can be done by intravenous or intramuscular injection.
Maintenance – during the maintenance period the cats state of unconsciousness is monitored by the use of drugs, which is given intramuscularly, intravenously or using the anaesthetic mask. If inhaling the cat will have an endotrachea tube attached to the anaesthetic circuit and machine which will deliver the inhalational agents.
Monitoring – when monitoring the patient during the procedure the veterinary nurse who will be watching will keep an eye on pulse