ESSAY QUIZ 1
3 APRIL 2015
Hemophilia is a hereditary genetic disorder, impairing and affecting the body’s blood vessels, increasing the possibility of such ailments as blood clotting. Like color blindness which adversely affects males, hemophilia is a sex linked trait which is carried on the X chromosome. Since males only have one X chromosome they are adept to the disease. However since females have two X chromosomes, hemophilia is often canceled out, or counteracted, in the creation of the second X chromosome. For a female carrier procreated with a non-hemophiliac male there are four possibilities for the children. There’s a 25 percent chance the son will not be hemophilic and a 25 % chance that he will have hemophilia. For females born with parents with the same traits, it’s a 25 percent chance she will be a carrier and a 25 percent chance she will not be. Though hemophilia almost always affects males, there is a very small percentage in which a female will actually be hemophilic.
Homologous can be described as having the same or similar relation, structure, or position. In relation to the makeup of chromosomes, homologous explains the same pattern, genes, and structural preferences that are paired at meiosis. Homologous chromosomes in eyes are intricate as they are an indicator not only for color, but sight and coordination as well. Eye colors, as well as other traits can almost be predetermined by the role of chromosomes and DNA. Genes are attached in pairs and are carried from the DNA traits of the parents who are the male and female sex chromosome. Within genes, there are two traits: recessive and dominant. The recessive and dominant traits ring true within eye color as brown is a dominant trait over green and blue which are recessive.
Meiosis is a form of cell division in which daughter cells are produced from parent cells. Within this process, a single cell is divided twice to produce four new cells. Within the new cells (daughter cells), half of the original genetic information is stored. The daughter cells are haploid, only containing half of the traits of the original chromosomes. Meiosis is divided into nine stages, which are divided into meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis I is the phase in which the cells are first divided, while the second stage covers the second time the cells are divided. The stages in meiosis I are interphase, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I and cytokinesis. The second phase consists of prophase II, metaphase II, and anaphase II, and telophase II and cytokinesis. These cells that are created are our sex cells, which are the sperm for males, and eggs for females. Meiosis is extremely important because it creates the sex cells and allows for our unique genetic DNA and traits to be created.
The standard of number of chromosomes in the human body is 46, in which there are 23 pairs. Abnormalities occur when meiosis does not happen properly, resulting in the egg having too many or two few chromosomes. Trisomy is the condition where there are extra