Who is the “better” composer, Mozart or Beethoven? Begin by exploring definitions of “better” and comparing two similar works by each composer. Most define better as something being superior to another. Who has the better Rondo structure? Who has the better rhythmic structure? Who has better use of special techniques, phrases and dynamics? Who does the listener think composed the “better” song? Piano Sonata, K. 333, Rondo by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Sonate (Pathetique) No. 13, Rondo by Ludwig van Beethoven represent works with many similarities in form and style and will be the works referred to in this analysis. The standard Rondo structure was used for many years before either Mozart or Beethoven composed with it. Originally used as a dance form, in Baroque and Classical music it often became the final movement of a Sonata. This is also the case with both selections being compared today. The structure both works include the basic ABACABA format the first episode going to V or possibly III if the refrain in a minor key. In the Mozart Rondo the refrain begins in Bb major and the first episode or B begins on measure 24 in the key of F major – V of Bb major. This is then followed by the return of the refrain in the opening key. (One point for Mozart he is following the expectations!!) Beethoven also follows expectations by beginning the refrain in c minor and then following with the 1st episode or refrain at measure 29 in the key of Eb major, III in the key of c minor. He also proceeds to the open refrain in the opening key. (Our composers are now tied – 1 to 1.) Mozart appears continues to following expectations by putting the second episode or C section in the key of Eb major, but he has wandered through the key of g minor to get there. Beethoven, on the other hand, takes the second episode or C section Ab major without any wandering in the overall key. (Beethoven is now up by 1 point!) Mozart also breaks expectations by putting a false return to the refrain in measure 91 before truly returning to the refrain in measure 112. The third episode, the second B section, in the standard Rondo form is a return to the material presented in the first episode, but in the tonic key or it parallel key. Mozart returns to the B material in the opening key of Bb major in measure 148, again following expectations, but then follows up with a to the refrain1 again in measure in measure 173. Beethoven begins the 3rd episode, second B section in measure 133, in C major and then moves us back to the opening key of c minor for the final refrain in measure 170, again following expectations. (The score is now – Mozart 2, Beethoven 3.) Both composers add a coda at the end of their Rondos. Mozart’s coda begins in measure 208, with a revisit to refrain theme in measure 214. This theme is now heard a minor third higher than at the beginning but still moves back to the key of Bb major for the closing cadence. Beethoven’s coda begins in measure 178 introducing some new melodic ideas. At measure 203, Beethoven also quotes the opening theme from the refrain, but it is heard a minor 3rd lower. He then works his way back for the final cadence in the key of c minor. Looking at just the form on paper, Beethoven is the “better” composer. Further examination is needed since form is not all there is to composing music. Mozart’s opening rhythm for his refrain is very similar to Beethoven’s. Both asked that the movement be played Allegro. Neither of the composers chose to change meter during the whole Rondo. Mozart interrupted the rhythmic flow in measure 198 with an extended cadenza and Beethoven created the feeling of suddenly slowing down in measure 79 and 80 by lack of quarter note and eighth notes. (Another tie!) Both composers appear equally strong in the rhythmic aspects of the Rondo. The use of special harmonic devices becomes important in smoothly moving the Rondo into new key centers. Mozart’s refrain include 2 half…
should not attempt to compress geography, nor should the stage represent more than one place. The unity of time: the action in a play should take place over no more than 24 hours.
Adler, Stella- An American actress and an acclaimed acting teacher, who founded the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York City and The Stella Adler Academy of Acting in Los Angeles. Stella Adler's technique, based on a balanced and pragmatic combination of imagination as well as memory, is hugely credited with introducing…
Running Head: ONLINE VS. CLASSROOM
Does Students Who Learn On-line Have Better Grades Than Students Who Learn In a Classroom Setting?
On April 5, 2013 we have conducted a survey on the campus of Bowie State University with fifty students who have completed a Introduction to Business class online or in class. Our purpose was to see if online learning is the best way to retain information as studies from our literature, journal…
BY THOMAS H. DAVENPORT
IN RECENT YEARS DECISION MAKERS in both the public
and private sectors have made an astounding number
of poor calls. For example, the decisions to invade Iraq,
not to comply with global warming treaties, to ignore
Darfur, are all likely to be recorded as injudicious in history books. And how about the decisions to invest in
and securitize subprime mortgage loans, or to hedge
risk with credit default swaps? Those were
For this tour, I selected three composers whom I believe are the greatest composers to have ever lived. They changed the course of music with their innovations and have influenced composers for centuries. Even today, their music and legacy live on beyond their imagination. Who are these composers?
We’ll begin this tour with Georg Friderick Handel, continue with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and conclude with Ludwig van Beethoven.
Georg Friderick Handel
With his brief article “Girls = Boys at Math,” an online Daily News service posted in July 2008, David Malakoff a freelance science writer and occasional contributor has a debate on who is and who is not excelling in math based on gender. “Zip. Zilch. Nada. There’s no real difference between the scores of the U.S boys and girls on common math test, according to a massive new study” (544) he states. Malakoff a freelance writer is known for “showing readers how to cover science in a…
English IV Honors
Rated third in the so-called Holy Trinity makes them known as The Who. This British Rock Band came into America during the second wave of the British Invasion. With them originally named as The Detour, the band had found out around mid-1963 that another band appeared on national television with the same name and this had forced them to change their name. They then held a meeting at original band member, Peter Townshend’s apartment and everybody all threw out suggestions…
5. Duration to Ownership:
Leasing a new machine will allow Sage Imaging to acquire ownership faster than the period needed if they purchased a refurbished one.
6. Facts about refurbished MRI machines:
According to some corporations who work in the field such as Block Imaging, most of the MRI refurbishments are cosmetic more than functional mostly parts like (Coils, covers, table pads) are the major targets for renewal, while restorative refurbishments happen but they are not usually…
A Better Life
A heartfelt story about a single father’s effort in overcoming life’s adversities while doing his best to encourage his teenage son to keep focused on school. It proves to be difficult, given the fact that his son holds no respect for him or for the sacrifices he has given. His journey throws many obstacles in his path, including struggling to take over a business due to his new work truck being stolen, having to stand by and watch as his son begins to throw away his future, and…
Composer report: Ludwig van Beethoven
On 17 December 1770, Ludwig van Beethoven was born. He was an amazing and great classical musical composer. He is known for being the most famous composer of the classical and romantic periods of music. According to the “Enjoyment of Music” manual, Beethoven was born in Bohn, Germany. His father, with his grandfather, was the two singers at the court of a local prince, Friedrich Max. (Forney and Machlis 197).
Beethoven began to take an interest in music from…