Enlightened and Revolutionary ideas (CAUSE) * Authority comes from consent of governed * Freedom and equality * Important values of enlightenment * These values had strong global influence * Freedom of worship/ expression * Legal equality * The social contract
American revolution: (EFFECT) * Tension between Britain and N. American colonies. * Legacy of seven years war (British debt, American tax burden) * Heavy taxes put on America * Colonies begin to boycott new taxes on them * They attack British officials (Boston tea party) * Battle of Lexington * Declaration of independence * Declaration was inspired by enlightenment and Locke’s theory of government * British advantages: strong government, navy, army, loyalists in colonies * American advantages: European allies, George Washington’s leadership * Effects: freedom of press, speech, religion, freedom of equality
French Revolution: * Financial crisis (CAUSE) * Forced new taxes * Many representatives wanted strong reform * 1st and 2nd estates tried to limit 3rd estates * 3rd estate forms the National Assembly * They demanded written constitution and popular sovereignty * Angry mob seized the bastille * NA wrote “declaration of the rights of Man and the citizen” * “Liberty, equality, and fraternity” * France became constitutional monarchy * NA replaced by the convention * Convention changed from monarch to republic. * Revolutionary changes to religion, dress, calendar, women’s rights * The directory takes place * Gave woman rights for education and property
Napoleon: * Brilliant military leader * Supported the revolution defended the directory * Overthrew the directory * Made peace with roman catholic church * Brought peace extended freedom of religion to Jews and protestants * Proclaimed himself emperor * Defeated Austria and Prussia
The Haitian Revolution: (only successful slave revolt) * Only successful slave revolution * 90% of population in Haiti was slaves. They also fought the colonies war for them. Slaves wanted freedom from the owners while the owners wanted to continue to rule. * Slaves decided to revolt under the rule of Louverture. Who was the son of a slave and raised the slave army. * during war with the French army yellow fever plagued French opening the victory for the slaves and announcing their independence. They than established republic of Haiti.
Causes: * Shift from wood to coal * Overseas colonies supplied raw materials * Demand for cheap cotton * James watt steam engine (increased productivity which lowered prices) * Iron and steel also * Invention of steam powered engine and steamships over sailboats * The factory system (harsh conditions unskilled)
Results: * Rail networks developed * British industrial monopoly * Industrialization in western Europe * Industrial capitalism 1. Mass production provided cheaper goods 2. Henry ford introduces assembly line to automobile 3. Industrialization expensive (required large capital investment) 4. Monopolies, trusts * Population growth * Improved dieting and conditions of living * Voluntary birth control * Urbanization and migration (migrants from countryside to urban side) * 50% of population of industrialized countries lived in towns * transcontinental migration (50 million Europeans migrated to n. America and s. America) * social classes were made as result of industrialization * family life changed because of long working hours * men gained stature * opportunities narrowed for woman * children forced to work in industry * Russian industrialization of 35,00 miles of railroads * Opening of technical and engineering institutes * Demand now