World War I and Germany Declares War Essay

Submitted By ktmzach199
Words: 801
Pages: 4

The Great War: World War I
The War to End All Wars
“The lamps have gone out all over
Europe and we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime.”
- British Prime Minister Lord Grey

Long Term Causes of World War I






Nationalism
Militarism
Imperialism
Peace time alliances
Long-standing ethnic grudges

Map 22.1 European Alliances in 1914 (p. 638)

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Short term timeline leading to
World War I
• June 28 - Assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke and heir, Francis Ferdinand (and Sophie, his wife)
• July 23 - Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia and invades on July 27
• July 28-30 - Russians mobilize as Serbia’s ally
• August 1 - Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, declares war on Russia (and Serbia)
• August 3 - Germany declares war on France (allied with Russia) and invades Belgium en route to Paris,
France
• August 4 - Great Britain, France’s ally, declares war on
Germany

The sides formed
• Triple Entente
(Allies)






France
Great Britain
Italy
Russia (1917 exit)
United States (1917 entry) • Central Powers
– Germany
– Austria-Hungary
(empire)
– Ottoman Empire
– Bulgaria

United States remains neutral
• Woodrow Wilson: “Remain neutral in thought as well as deed”
• To protect international trading rights
• “He kept us out of war.” 1916 presidential campaign slogan

U.S. Neutrality under fire








British blockade of North Sea
Germans engage in submarine (u-boat) warfare
Lusitania crisis (May 1915)
British liner sunk by German
U-boats
Arabic and Sussex sinkings
(Germans issue Sussex pledge) Economic ties with Britain and
France - war time trade and
US financing of allied war effort Shifting US public opinion
• Reports of German cruelty (Huns) reinforced by Lusitania
• Ethnic loyalties
• Native born Americans
(not Indians) favored
Britain and French victory • British War Propaganda
• Pro-War politicians (TR)

More Propaganda

Preparedness
• Greater $ for military spending necessary
• National Security
League
• National Defense Act:
June 1916
• Midwest and Western
Americans opposed to preparedness (Populists,
Progressives,
Socialists)

Election of 1916





“He Kept us out of War”
Peace efforts had failed
Wilson narrowly won
January 1917, “Peace without Victory”
Speech
• April 1917, Wilson asked for declaration of war.

From Neutrality to War
• Zimmermann Telegram
(1917)
• Russian Revolution
(1917)
• Unrestricted Submarine
Warfare
• “The World Must be made safe for
Democracy”
(Progressive crusade)

Mobilization in the USA
• War Industries Board
(Bernard Baruch) coordinated production and price controls
• Food Administration
(Herbert Hoover) voluntary efforts to conserve food for soldiers • Financing - Liberty
Bonds

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America and the War Effort (p. 636)

“Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty” (p. 649)

Wartime Public Opinion
• Committee on Public
Information propaganda agency in America (George
Creel) “do your bit” for the war
• Hate the Hun,
Liberty Cabbage,
Salisbury Steak,
Can the Kaiser

Wartime Civil Liberties
• Espionage and Sedition
Acts (1917-18) jail sentences for those critical of disloyal or abusive remarks toward
US war effort
• Schenck v. United
States (1919) “clear and present danger” - free speech could be limited

The Armed Forces
• Selective Service Act (1917) draft: 2.8 million draftees, 2.9 million volunteers
• Eventually 2 million were sent to Europe
• Blacks - 400,000 served, few officers
• Blacks hoped for service abroad = equal rights at home (not so)

American Society
• Women took mens jobs while men were “Over
There”…