Anatomy Study Guide: Biology 32 Essay

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Biology 32-Anatomy Lecture Test 1 Study Guide Spring 2013
Chapter 1
Define the following words:
Anatomy- “a cutting open” study of internal and external structures in the body
Physiology- study of how living organisms perform their vital functions
-Know the principle of complementarity of structure and function what a structure can do depends on its form
-Know the levels of structural organization Chemical: Atoms and molecules Cellular: Cells and their organelles Tissue: Consists of similar types of cells Organ: organs are made up of different types of tissue Organ System: organs that work closely together Organismal: all organ systems
-Be able to describe the anatomical position Body erect, feet slightly apart, and palms face forward
-Be able to name and describe the planes of the body Sagittal plane: divides the body vertically into right and left halves Mid-sagittal plane: lies on the midline Parasagittal plane: not on midline Frontal plane (coronal): divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts Transverse plane(horizontal): divides body into superior and inferior parts Oblique planes: cut diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes
-Know the directional terms used for Anatomy and be able to use the directional terms correctly Superior (cranial)- toward the head end or upper part of a structure; above Inferior (caudal)- away from the head end or lower part of a structure: below Medial- toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side Lateral- away from the midline of the body; on the outer side Intermediate- between a more medial and more lateral structure Proximal- closer to the origin of the body part or point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Distal- farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
-Know the names of the regions of the body Axial: head, neck, and trunk Appendicular: limbs
Regional terms designate specific areas
-Be able to locate the regions of the human body by name (See Chart)
-Know the names and locations of the body cavities and their subdivisions Dorsal: protects nervous system
Cranial: encases brain Vertebral: encases spinal cord Ventral: houses internal organs (viscera)
Thoracic: two pleural (each houses a lung)
Mediastinum: contains pericardial and surrounds thoracic organs
Pericardial: encloses the heart
Abdominal: contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver
Pelvic: contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

-Know what organs are found in each of the body cavities and their subdivisions (See above answer)
-Be able to describe the different ways the abdominopelvic cavity can be divided (4 & 9) Four Quadrants: RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, & LLQ Nine Divisions: (Right) hypochondriac, lumbar, iliac (inguinal) regions (Middle) epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric (pubic) regions (Left) hypochondriac, lumbar, iliac (inguinal) regions
-Know the names of the quadrants and divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity and the organs found in each quadrant and division Four Quadrants RUQ: liver, pancreas, gallbladder, large and small intestine LUQ: liver, stomach, pancreas, large and small intestine RLQ: appendix, cecum, LLQ: descending colon, sigmoid colon, urinary bladder Nine Divisions: Rt hypochondriac: liver, gallbladder, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon, right kidney Rt lumbar: tip of liver, gallbladder, small intestine, ascending colon, right kidney Rt iliac: small intestine, appendix, cecum and ascending colon; right ovary, right fallopian tube Epigastric: esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon, right and left adrenal glands, right & left kidneys, right and left ureters, spleen Umbilical: stomach, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon, right & left kidney,