• Social Group: A group with two or more people who have these four characteristics:
1. They interact Regularly & Influence each other
2. They believe they have something in common
3. They have an informal or formal structure with a leader and followers
4. They have a group consensus on certain values and goals
• Aggregate is a group that does not posses the qualities of a social group, they are simply a collective of people and interact only briefly. (have little influence on each other)
EX: People who just happen to be waiting for the bus at the same time.
• Primary group is a typically small social group whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships. EX: family, childhood friends, and highly influential social groups
• Secondary group interact on a less personal level than in a primary group, and their relationships are temporary rather than long lasting. EX: Sports clubs, School, Afterschool activity clubs.
• Groups Norms: The Behaviour expected by a group. These very from one group to another for example your friend may expect you to be in one way; your teacher. These are two types of norms.
• Folkways: A way of thinking, feeling and behaving common to members of the same social group. These include the everyday practices of a society group such as table manners, personal cleanliness and different forms of greeting
• Mores: Norms that arise from important group values and are associated with strong feelings of right and wrong. EX: Sexual behaviour is governed by mores. each group has its own set of mores to which it expects members to conform to.
• Roles: Expected social behaviour leaned by living the past or observing the way theirs act in similar situations. Each of play many social roles or expected function: son or daughter, brother and sister, student and teacher, friend, ch-workers.
• Sanctions: Groups rewards or Punishments that encourages certain behaviour.
• Hunting and gathering societies are societies in which all of the dietary intake of the members of the society is obtained by some combination of hunting, trapping, collecting shellfish, fishing and collecting edible plant materials.
• Agrarian societies are societies which are based upon crops which are produced in conjunction with the use of the blow technique. The relatively high level of agricultural productivity in this type of society provides a situation favourable for the development of complex systems of social stratification and large permanent cities.
• Industrial Societies began to emerge with the so called Industrial Revolution which is generally agreed to have its origins with the invention of the steam engine (actually serveral improvements in the already existing steam engine) by James Watt in or around 1769 in England. Industrial societies combine science and technology with the utilization of energy to run machines.
• The Post-industrial societies are characterized by the use of electronic manipulation and transmission of information. The advent of radio followed by the television, along with the development and evolution of the computer, are fundamental technological developments associated with the development of the