Final Exam Study Guide Essay

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Anthro Final Exam Study Guide

Worldview: (1)naturalized ideas- set of unique ideas, stem from social norms (2) shared cultural concepts- ingrained, taken for granted, “common sense” (3) attitudes and values- natural, inherent, universal; culturally based attitudes (4) anth. define this concept as a way of viewing other people and the world; giving meaning to beliefs and behaviors; naturalized concepts that orient peoples’ ways of thinking about themselves and the world.

Religion: (1) ideas/feelings about existence of superhuman, supernatural forces (2) set of beliefs/practices relating with spirit world; for explaining the universe; creation of the universe and its cont. existence (3) spirit forces- may be in separate realm, ever present, part of nature, supernatural spirits thought to affect daily activities

Religious Practice: (1) forms- may be rituals; demonstration of beliefs through sets of activities, public/formal or private/informal (2) purposes- contact spirits; unify community of believers; express respect or honor; ask for blessings/protection (3) spiritual leaders may come to their position through a “calling” or vision, inheritance, or powers of knowledge; usually undergo training or apprenticeship; may have important social status and roles beyond religious leadership

Balinese Spatial Orientation: relation of position to north-mountains, and south-sea; relation of position above ground relative to should social superiors, constant “carefulness”, adjust position according to cosmotology laws; “kaja” and “kelod” complementary opposites--also denoted as sacred vs. profane--high/low; anything out of perfect proportion results in physical or spiritual illness

Time and Life Cycle: (1) variation-cross cultural variation in how human life stages are divided, significance attributed to each stage (2) biology- no universal or “natural” divisions for life stages, but human biology is a factor in most cultural conceptions of life cycle (3) intermediate stages- example would be child vs. adult; culturally constructed naturalized categories

Time and Worldview: (1) linear-regard time as something that passes and is irrecoverable (2) cyclical regard time as something that is constantly renewing and returning, involving repeating stages “Mayan Wheel of Time”

Art: (1) human creation with intentions (2) physical, imaginative, conceptual skills needed (3) intended to affect feelings and imagination (4) employs stylistic conventions that are either rigid or inflexible

Ritualistic Art: (1) enacts sense of actions of symbols set by a community (2) visual/performance arts, specialized material symbols (3) purpose to attract and show respect for spirits (4) symbolically transport participants to non-ordinary mental, emotional, and spiritual states

Balinese Art: (1) traditions are old and rigid (2) temples are “middle space”: worlds of gods and humans overlap (3) integrated with mythology and religious worldviews, aspect of everyday life (4) Taksu- talent, charismatic gift, quality assoc. with performance (5) authorship- “giving oneself up” to perform; not a singular author, but a vehicle for Taksu

Applied Anthro.: (1) ethno. research includes-recognizing conditions, society issues, problems in community (2) experiencing issues first hand, understand them in depth (3) acting as advocate for communities of study (4) help solve problems (5) research with explicit, practical applications and problem oriented questions (6) applications of data, concepts, strategies, to solution of social, envir., techn., and economic

Applied Anthro: Who Supports It & Why: (1) public and private development institutions (2) improving health conditions (3) mitigating conflicts (4) develop new economic opportunities

The Green Revolution: (1) It was a failure because- they dismissed water temples as religious institutions without practical role (2) result was ecological crisis, chaos in water scheduling, pest