Ap biology Essay

Submitted By xojnicole
Words: 426
Pages: 2

What to know?
1. Neutrons are neutral, makes up nucleus, and weighs about 1 dalton
2. Protons are positive, make up nucleus, are equal to # of electrons
3. Electrons are negative; randomly surround the nucleus, and equal # of protons. The amount of these determines the chemical properties and reactivity of an atom.
Hydrogen: One electron, Carbon: 6 electrons, Nitrogen: 7 electrons, Oxygen: 8 electrons.
4. Salts in the body, like Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Chloride and Iron, are all ionicly bonded. Know the appearance of Sodium chloride and else wise be able to identify
Anions: Chloride; Gains electrons and becomes negative. Cations- Sodium; loses electrons and becomes positive.
5. Bonds:
Nucleic Acids are held together by H-bonds.
Hydrogen bonds are in proteins on left side. Aid in tertiary structure by holding polar side chains together, while Ionic bonds hold positive and negative charges, helping stabilize the tertiary structure.
Adenine and thymine have 2 hydrogen bonds.
Guanine and cytosine have three.
Hydrogen bonds are part of the Secondary structure of Proteins and helps with local folding.
Peptide bonds form due to dehydration synthesis between amino acids, linking them together.
Ester linkage forms between the glycerol and three fatty acids!
Phosphodiester bonds forms between the phosphates and the nitrogen base in a sugar.
Hydrolsis breaks polymers by adding water to them, thus causing h+ to go to one, and OH- to go to the other. It requires enzymes and water, and produces energy.
Dehydration Synthesis requires the –HO of one monomer and the –HO of another, along with an enzyme and energy to form a polymer.
A population consists of organisms of the same species in the same…