Archaeology Test Review Essay

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Archaeology Test Review
Principles of Archaeological Ethics
1. Stewardship: The long-term preservation/conservation of archaeological records
2. Accountability: Must make an effort to consult with the groups affected by their research
3. Commercialization: To avoid and discourage the commercial value of archaeological objects, especially those unaccessible to the public
4. Public Education & Outreach: Should reach out to and cooperate with interested members of the public
5. Intellectual Property: Original materials/documents should not be treated as personal possessions
6. Public Reporting & Publications: Knowledge of a research should be made public within a reasonable length of time to a wide range of interested publics
7. Reports & Preservation: Actively work for the preservation of archaeological records and reports
8. Training & Resources: Must have adequate training, facilities, and support before carrying out research
Ethical Conduct of Aboriginal Peoples
1. To recognize/respect the existing spiritual bond between the aboriginal people and special places or features of the landscape
2. To acknowledge the cultural significance of human remains and associated objects to the aboriginal people 3. To respect the protocols governing the investigation, removal, curation, and reburial of associated objects and human remains
* Archaeologists may only dig an excessive amount if the site is faced with imminent destruction
- Otherwise it is left for future generations who have newer methods of excavation that allows for better conservation of the area/artifacts
Archaeological Survey
- Purpose of a survey is to map the physical remains of human activity
- Used to understand the distribution of sites within a region, how they are distributed across the landscape, or where different activities took place
- Uses statistical sampling (Selected sample is used to represent a larger population)
Recovery Methods
- In a depositional environment where there is a constant build up of sediment, artifacts may not always be found on the surface
- Archaeologists dig up small test pits to find buried artifacts
Wet Screening: Process of spraying water on a sieve to break up sediments and move them through a mesh Floatation: Process used to recover botanical material (wood, seeds) by mixing sediments with water vigorously together. The charred remains float to the surface while the sediments settle at the bottom. The botanical material is skimmed off, dried, and analyzed
Recording Methods
- Allows for the reconstruction of the excavation on paper after the dig
- Each depositional unit has a recording sheet
- Includes plan maps at different stages of the dig
- Stratigraphic section showing the relation with different depositional units
- Description of the contents of the depositional unit
Technologies Used
- Remote Sensing (Aerial/Satellite Photography): Used to discover sites and in orienting exploration
- Geophysical Techniques (Magnetometry, Ground-Penetrating Radar): Gives an idea of what lies below the surface of a site without excavation
- Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers determines precise locations of sites
Geographical Information System (GIS)
- Software applications that allows for spatial data to be brought together and consolidated
- The exact longitude and latitude of 2-3 points are required of the area
- Allows the data to be georeferenced then made into digital or raster images
- All the data is treated as layers and will overlay with one another
- Can identify from the area:

- Distribution of soils
- Hydrology
- Topography
The Law of Superposition
- In any undisturbed depositional sequence, each layer of of sediments is younger than the layer beneath it
- Stratigraphic sequence can be continuous or discontinuous
- Continuous: Sediments are uniform throughout with no clear breaks
- Discontinuous: Clear breaks in either the type of rocks or the types of sediments