Identify and explain how verbal and nonverbal codes work in conjunction. Page 87 – six different ways Repetition: same message is sent verbally and non-verbally Emphasis: non-verbal strengthen your message Complementation: duplication of message in 2 different channels Contradiction: verbal and non-verbal messages contradict
Substitution: non-verbal codes are used instead of verbal codes
Regulation: nonverbal used to control and monitor interactions with others
Identify and explain how nonverbal and verbal codes are distinctive. Page 88
What are three problems people have in interpreting nonverbal codes?
1) one code for many meanings
2) many codes for the same meaning
3) consist of symbols not words
Identify and explain the types of bodily movement in nonverbal communication.
Kinesics: study of bodily movements including posture, gestures, and facial expressions
Mehrabian (1971) -liking: forward leaning, close proximity, face-face like -status: high status—bigger gestures -responsiveness: movement towards other, spontaneous gestures
-emblems: movements that substitute words -illustrators: movements that accompany/reinforce words -affects display: face/body showing emotion -regulators: control pace and flow of communication -adaptors: do partially in public but full blown in private
Identify and explain the role of bodily appearance in communication.
Physical attractiveness is an important nonverbal attribute, can lead to better treatment as a child and more success for adults. Media often distorts the concept of attractiveness
What factors determine the amount of personal space you use? proxemics: study of human space and distance Page 92 Werner (1987) territorial: need to establish and maintain certain spaces are your own personal space: “bubble” that moves around you, distance between yourself and others
Hall (1966) First to establish 4 kinds:
1) intimate: 18 inches, for people close to you, more private than public
2) personal: 18 in to 4 ft, for conversation and non-intimate
3) social:4-12 ft, business, more professional, the higher class the more space
4) public: more than 12 ft, public speaking
Gender: men take the most space, women, and then children….
Relationship: stand closer to friends and further from your enemies Setting: closer together in larger rooms and further apart in smaller
Culture: can lead to different use and different interpretation
How do people view time differently? Chronemics: the way people use and view time Page 94 Monochromic: very serious and complete one task at a time, like privacy
Polychromic: several tasks at once, not rendered by time, usually more engaged with others -Higher class can usually arrive late, lower are expected to be on time -North America more uptight, South America lenient with time -Indication of our personality, culture, and status
What factors influence the meaning and use of touch?
Touch commands attention -insufficient touching can lead to health disorders
-touch is perceived as positive, pleasurable, and reinforcing
-those comfortable with touch: satisfied with their past and current lives, self-confident, assertive, socially acceptable
-touch varies by gender … page 96 (bullets)
-setting: the workplace has eliminated it a great deal due to sexual harassment
-culture and co-culture: determines the frequency
-unwanted touching can lead to breach of trust, anxiety, and hostility
How are objects used in nonverbal communication? Page 99
Help indicate time in history, the time of day, the climate, and ones culture
-clothing and artifacts: physical and psychological protection, spur sexual attraction, indicate self-concept
-clarify what type of person you are – if you confirm means you want to be liked by society
-permit personal expression
-Communicates authority and a