When working with children and young people, it’s helpful to understand the typical stages of development for their age. Each age have expected patterns of development. Each child and young person’s rate of development can vary as I will be investigating.
Babies at birth.
Most babies are born around the fortieth week of pregnancy. Babies who are born more than three weeks early are described as premature. Premature babies are likely to need a little more time to reach the same levels of development as a baby who is born at 40 weeks.
Babies are born with many reflexes, which are actions they performs without thinking. Many reflexes are linked to survival.
These reflexes include:
Swallowing and sucking reflex- These ensure that the baby can feed and swallow milk,
Rooting reflex- The baby will move its head to look for a nipple or teat if its cheek or mouth is touched. This helps the baby to find milk.
Grasp reflex- Babies will automatically put their fingers around an object that has touched the palm of their hand.
Startle reflex- When babies hear a sudden sound or see a sudden bright light, they will react by moving their arms outwards and clutching their fist.
Walking and standing reflex- When babies are held upright with their feet on a firm surface, they usually make stepping movements.
Physical development of babies at birth to six months may include:
Develops own rhythm in feeding and sleeping
Grows rapidly e.g. Doubles birth eight
Gains early control of eye movement
Balances head, rolls over, pulls self to sitting position and sits alone momentarily
Begins to grasp objects
Babies looking less curled up and less startle reflex
Social, emotional and behavioural development at birth to six months may include:
Recognises primary caregiver (usually mother) from others (usually more responsive to this person)
Imitates movements e.g. gazes at faces, smiles to be friendly
Likes to be held, played with, tickled and carried
Smiles at self in mirror
Shows enjoyment of being fed, picked up and enjoys bath time
Fears loud or unexpected noise, strange objects, situations or people, sudden movements and pain
Fleeting smiles when asleep
Intellectual development at birth to six months may include;
Recognise the smell and sound of mothers voice
Learns through senses, notices objects around them
Coos and vocalizes spontaneously, babbles in syllables
Toys and objects explored in mouth and fingers
Language development at birth to six months may include;
Crying when hungry, tired or distressed
Coo when contented
Smile back when they see a smiling face
Lifts arms up to show carer that they want to be picked up
Babies at 1 month.
In their first month of their life babies change a lot. When babies are 1 month they have usually settled into a daily routine. They tend to sleep quite a lot of the time, but they will gradually stat to spend longer periods of time awake. Their parents may start to understand the different types of cry’s as they cry to communicate their needs. Babies will also be learning about their parents or carer’s. They may stop crying when they hear their soothing voices and they will also be trying hard to focus on the face of whoever is holding them. They can focus at a distance of 20-25 cm.
Babies at 3 months.
Babies at 3 months would have grown in height and weight. Some babies would have learnt the difference between day and night and are able to sleep all through the night. Most parents are getting better at knowing what their different cries mean and they are likely to cry less. They are also starting to sleep less and are far more alert. They may be smiling more often and show they know the sound of their parents voices and movements.
Babies at 6 months.
Babies at 6 months would have now learnt many different skills. They will now be very alert and would turn their heads to see what is happening around them. They would enjoy playing and would show this by smiling and squealing