Dynamic Planet * Glacial Formation * when snow remains in the same area year-round, where enough snow accumulates to transform into ice * Each year, new layers of snow bury and compress the previous layers * This compression forces the snow to re-crystallize, forming grains similar in size and shape to grains of sugar. * Gradually the grains grow larger and the air pockets between the grains get smaller, causing the snow to slowly compact and increase in density. * After about two winters, the snow turns into firn—an intermediate state between snow and glacier ice. At this point, it is about half as dense as water. * Over time, larger ice crystals become so compressed that any air pockets between them are very tiny. In very old glacier ice, crystals can reach several inches in length. For most glaciers, this process takes over a hundred years. * Mass-Balance * Ablation zone- more snow falls in winter * Accumulation zone-where snow and ice melt * Equilibrium line- separates these two places * Mass-balance- balance between ablation and accumulation * Studying this can help us study climate change * Short, low elevation, or south facing glaciers respond quicker * Warmer temperatures- smaller and thinner * Moraines- mark maximum extent during cooler periods * Lower temperatures- increasing mass * Movement * Weight of a thick layer of ice + it deforms as a "plastic" material, combined with gravity's influence, * Internal deformation- individual ice crystals within a glacier deform and slide across one another * Basal sliding- water = lube * glaciers to flow very slowly * Ice may flow down mountain valleys; fan across plains, or in some locations, spread out to the sea. * Movement along the underside of a glacier is slower than movement at the top due to the friction created as it slides along the ground's surface * Terminus- the lowest end of a glacier; also called glacier snout or toe. * Ablation-combined processes which remove snow or ice from the surface of a glacier or from a snow-field * Quantity lost by these processes * Reduction of the water equivalent * Accumulation-all processes by which snow or ice are added to a glacier, this is typically the accumulation of snow, which is slowly transformed into ice; other accumulation processes can include avalanches, wind-deposited snow, and the freezing of rain within the snow pack. * Types of Flow * Retreat-when a mountain glacier's terminus doesn't extend as far down valley as it previously did; * Occurs when ablation surpasses accumulation. * glacier still deforms and moves down slope, like a conveyor belt * Advance-when a mountain glacier's terminus extends farther down valley than before; glacial advance occurs when a glacier flows down valley faster than the rate of ablation at its terminus. * Usually very slow and takes a long time to notice difference * Sometimes very fast and can be seen within weeks and months * Surge- racing forward at several meters/day for weeks and months * Glacier Types * Ice Sheet- Found only in Antarctica and Greenland, ice sheets are enormous continental masses of glacial ice and snow expanding over 50,000 square kilometers * Ice Shelves- extend over the sea, and float on the water * surround most of the Antarctic continent * Retreating ice shelves may provide indications of climate change. * Ice Caps- miniature ice sheets, relatively flat and high in elevation * Ice Streams and Outlet Glaciers- channelized glaciers that flow more rapidly than the surrounding body of ice. For instance, the Antarctic ice sheet has many ice streams flowing outward * Ice Fields-similar to ice caps, except that their
“Department of Biology, The College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho 83605”) as is seen in professional papers in journals.
The abstract is a short statement of the essence of the paper. It clearly states 1) the problem, 2) the methods of investigation, 3) the results, and 4) the conclusions and implications in one succinct paragraph. An abstract should not exceed 5-10 percent of the length of the paper.
You must select only the most essential details to include in the abstract. Keep it short…
Wolves are a species that we have in this world that people are taking advantage of. People think that they can kill these endangered species because they are “harmful” in our environment. People also kill these wolves for sport. In some states they think that killing wolves will help the environment, so they set out a quota that can be met.
Wolves are so important to the wild. 35 years ago they were rescued from the brink of extinction. Since they were almost completely…
Where does DNA replication take place and how does DNA replication occur?
Dear Auntie Lisa,
Congratulations on your pregnancy! My mom just called and told me, I’m so happy for you and Erv! Now, I know you’re nervous about this pregnancy (being as how your past 30 years old, but a young 32 nonetheless!), and you asked my mom questions about how the baby actually becomes a baby, ie how it inherits genes from your and Erv’s DNA, where the actual “passing on” of genes occurs, but have no fear! Myself…
Bio 100 Section 11
I can consider myself as a fan of Cheerios, a cereal brands. I love cereal because of its taste and its nutrition. Whenever eating cereal, I always look at the nutrition facts table and feel great that I am eating good stuffs. However, I always wonder how cereal could help me to get away from hunger and not until Bio100, I still have that same question. Now, after learning about metabolism, I could know how cereal is transformed into energy. A sequence called metabolic pathways…
The Effects of Exercise on Heart Rate and Blood Pressure
Our experiment tested how different exercises will affect cardiovascular output. We hypothesized that if we increase the intensity of physical demand then the work the heart would have to do would increase according to the exercise. The cardiovascular system includes the heart, veins, arteries, and blood. This is how oxygen and nutrients are transported to the cells of the body. Heart rate corresponds directly to the work…
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GUIDELINES FOR LAB REPORT
Concise and Informative Title that Reflects The Findings of the Experiment
[Arial font; 12 pt, bold, centered)
A. Author and B. Author (MARB 301, Section 40x)
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Texas A&M University at Galveston, Genetics Lab (MARB 301), 200 Seawolf Parkway, Classroom
Laboratory Building, Galveston, TX 77553
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The growth in energy consumption of the world by 2035 is projected to be 55% which is 770 quadrillion Btu. In the process of producing energy to meet the demand associated emissions also increase considerably. To conserve energy and reduce emissions emphasis is to be laid on This utilizing renewable energy resources. This gave solar, wind, biomass and other forms renewable sources great concern. Among the developing renewable energy technologies biomass is a potent source…
(Alevel Bio revision websites).Put your list into the keywords section of your folder – to be shown to Ms Murphy/Ms Fleck in first lesson back. | 1.25 hours |
Task 3: Review and create a 10-question quiz with answers on the carriage of carbon dioxide and oxygen (use the textbook pages provided –OCR p64-67- and websites outlined in the sheet provided (Alevel Bio revision websites).To be to be shown to Ms Murphy/Ms Fleck in first lesson back. | 1 hour |
Task 4: Complete the Exam Paper provided…