Chapter 1 – Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things (Cells)
1.1 – Cell Structure
Microscopy – The science of using microscopes to view samples or objects.
Micrograph – A photograph taken with a microscope.
* Leeuwenhoek Microscope – 250x. Hand held. * Fluorescence – 1500x. Fluorescent stains, glow. * Phase-Contrast Microscope – 1500x. Light Contrast. * BrightField/DarkField – 2000x. Bright/Dark background. * Scanning Electron Microscope – 200 000x. Sweeps with electrons, 3D model. * Transmission Electron Microscope – 1 000 000x. Beams of electrons.
Cell Theory 1. All living organisms are made of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic organizational unit of life. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Cell – The smallest unit that can perform the functions of life.
Organelle – A specialized structure in a cell.
Parts of the Cell: * Nucleus – Brain of cell. Controls everything. * Nucleolus – Makes ribosome parts. * Cytoskeleton – The framework of the cell. Like the skeleton. Provides pathing for transports. * Cell Membrane – A thin layer covering the cell. Controls flow of materials in and out of cell. * Cytoplasm – Surrounded by cell membrane. Like the jello holding everything inside. * Cytosol – The liquid that is cytoplasm. * Ribosomes – Makes proteins with amino acid * Mitochondria – Releases energy. That fuels the cell. (PowerPlant) * Vacuoles – Contains water and materials. (GreatLakes) * Golgi Body – Sorts + Package proteins. * Vesicles – Sacs that store OR transport materials from the Golgi Body. Can cross cell membrane. * Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough –Makes ribosomes with ribosome particles. Transports. * Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) Soft - Transports material. Connected to nucleus. * Lysosome – Dump of cell, holds waste, digusts it. Plant cells use vacuoles instead of this. * Centrsomes/Centriole – Heads to ends of cells during mitosis/cytokenesis. Makes spindle fibres. * Cell Wall – Like a tough, strong cell membrane, protecting the cell membrane. * Chloroplasts – Uses the sun to make proteins / energy. (Glucose)
1.2 - Genes
Chromosome – A thread like structure made of DNA. (46 chromosomes in a human. 23/23 | mom/dad)
DNA – Material containing genetic information.
Gene – A segment of DNA that controls protein production. Makes different proteins.
4 Building Blocks of DNA: 1. A (Adenine) 2. T (Thymine) 3. C (Cytosine) 4. G (Guanine)
Building BlocksGeneDNAChromosome |||| AT / CG
DNA controls your features. Looks, lifestyle, disease.
DNA produces, manufacture and controls proteins.
Over/Under production of proteins (extra chromosomes) result in physical/mental disabilities.
DNA Screening – Testing people to see if they have gene(s) associated with certain genetic disorders.
Types of DNA Screening: * Amniocentesis * Blood Testing
Amniocentesis –Needles is inserted into a pregnant woman’s abdominal wall to extract fluid from the amniotic sac. Cells of fetus are put under a microscope and micrographs of chromosomes are taken. This is called Karyotype. Karyotype shows if a person has to many/few chromosomes or if they’re broken.
Blood Testing – Test the proteins in the blood to see if they’re functioning properly.
Down syndrome – Have three chromosomes (21) instead of two.
Transgenic Organism – An organism’s genetic info that has been altered with insertion of genes from other species.
The genetic code is universal. The four building blocks (A, C, T, G) produce the code for proteins in all types of organisms. Bacteria, plants, and animals. Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are organisms with genes from other organisms. Ex.Pg 23.
Cloning – The process of creating identical genetic copies of an organism. (Pg25)
Mutation – A change in the DNA of an organism.
Mutagen – A substance or factor that can cause a