Essay on Biology Review Notes

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Bio94 (TA Alejandra Rodriguez) Study guide for the final exam on Wednesday March 20, 2013

Hi!
This is only a skeleton study guide that you may use to help organize the key concepts presented in lectures. Some important points are in bold. I also added the figures of each chapter that I consider useful for studying (it doesn’t mean that you have to memorize them! Just try to extract the useful information). I also added the homework questions with some hints. I wrote all my comments in blue. Finally, I put the vocabulary words in red and I highlighted some animals in green. I highlighted in yellow the parts of the book that you have to study.
Please let me know if you have any question or comment.
Good luck on your final!
Alejandra

Bio94 (TA Alejandra Rodriguez) Study guide for the final exam on Wednesday March 20, 2013

Chapter 32. An introduction to animals
Lecture 1 and part of lecture 2
Major key concepts:
• Multicellulartity has evolved several times.
• Animals are closely related to fungi.
• Choanoflagellates (Choanoflagellates are unicellular protists) are the closest living relative of animals.
• Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes that lack cell walls and ingest their prey.
• The basic animal body is a tube-within-a-tube.
Four features define an animal's body plan:
1)
The number of embryonic tissue layers:
(a) Animals are made from tissue layers (except for sponges).
1.
Diplobasts (2 layers: ectoderm and endoderm)
2.
Triploblast (3 layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). Like us!
2)
The type of body symmetry and degree of cephalization
(a) Presence or absence of symmetry (asymmetry)
(b) Radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry (cephalization)
3)
The presence or absence of a fluid-filled cavity
(a) Presence or absence of coelom
(b) Evolutionary importance of the coelom (hydrostatic skeleton) 4)
The way in which the earliest events of embryo development proceed
(a) Gastrulation: Protostome (mouth first), Deuterostome
(Anus first).
(b) Formation of coelom (different in Protostome and
Deuterostome).
• All animals except sponges have neurons and muscle cells.
• Fundamental changes in morphology and development occurred as animals diversified. Much of this diversification had to do with sensing the environment, moving and eating (Read Section 32.3 of the book).
1) Sensory Organs: Magnetism, electric fields, barometric pressure.
2) Feeding:
a) 4 general tactics (pages 610-612):
i)
Suspension (or filter) feeders ii) Deposit feeders iii) Fluid feeders iv) Mass feeders
b) 3 general sources:
i) Herbivores (feed on plants or algae) ii) Carnivores (feed on animals) iii) Detritivores (feed on dead organic matter)
Omnivores (both plants and animals)
3) Movement:
a) Types of limbs: unjointed and jointed

Bio94 (TA Alejandra Rodriguez) Study guide for the final exam on Wednesday March 20, 2013

b) Are all animal appendages homologous? (Study Figure 32.19)
4) Reproduction: Methods of sexual reproduction vary widely among animal group, and many species can reproduce asexually. It is common for individuals to undergo metamorphosis during their life cycle
(holometabolous and hemimetabolous).
Key figure:

Homework:
1) Why should we care that animals are closely related to the fungi? Hint: Biomedical treatments; fungal infections and how to treat them.
2) Why is coelom important? What is the evolutionary importance of the coelom? (Page
605). Make sure you read the section in the book about all the things the coelom does for us.
3) What hypotheses are given in the book to explain why metamorphosis evolved? feeding and specialization
(page 616)
4) Read and understand the experiment on page 614 of your book. Remember that a good experiment relies on a good control. What is the control in this experiment?
5) Do humans molt? No (see Quiz 5 answers)

Bio94 (TA Alejandra Rodriguez) Study guide for the final exam on Wednesday March 20,…