Biology Test Notes Essay example

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Biology Review
A dependent Variable is what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment. Controlled variables are the variables cannot change (Stay constant). An independent variable is the variable that is being tested.
The Scientific Process
1) What is the problem?
2) Think about possible solutions
3) Get needed materials and plan the steps of our testing procedure (think about variables)
4) Observations
5) Analysis of observations
6) What can I do next

Ecosystems are complex self-regulating systems in which living things interact with each other and with non-living things. Biotic things are living things and abiotic things are non-living things. Species are a group of similar organisms that can reproduce with each other and their offspring can also reproduce. Population is a group of members of the same species that live in the same area. A community is when populations of different species that live in the same area. Niche is all the interactions of a given species with its ecosystem. Biomes are large geographical region that contains similar ecosystems. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surround the earth. The lithosphere is the earth’s solid outer layer. The biosphere is the part of the planet including water, land, and air where life exists. Finally the hydrosphere is all the water on the earth.
Terrestrial Biomes
Canada’s five main terrestrial biomes are defined by their dominant vegetation.
• Deciduous forests have trees that lose their leaves in the autumn, such as maples and oaks. Southern Ontario is mainly a deciduous forest biome.
• Boreal forests (also known as taiga) have trees that have cones and needles, such as spruce and fir. Most of northern Ontario is covered with boreal forests.
• Tundra has no trees, only small shrubs, hardy grasses, mosses, and lichens. Even some flowers such as crocuses grow here. Ontario’s northern coastline on Hudson Bay, to the west of James Bay, is tundra.
• Grasslands have few trees but are covered in various kinds of grasses and shrubs. Ontario has very few types of grassland. They are found in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and a small part of Alberta.
• Temperate coniferous forests have different types of needle- and cone-bearing trees than the boreal forest: Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, and western hemlock. Most of western British Columbia is temperate coniferous forest.
Aquatic Biomes
Water-based, or aquatic, biomes fall under two main categories: marine and freshwater. The water in marine biomes has a high salt content, and the water in freshwater biomes has a very low salt content.
• Marine biomes are found in the oceans. Coral reefs, the ocean floor, the open ocean, and the intertidal zones are marine biomes. Ontario has marine biomes along Hudson Bay and James Bay.
• Freshwater biomes include lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands. Some of Ontario’s lakes and rivers are huge, such as the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Ontario has countless smaller lakes, streams, and wetlands.

Photosynthesis
The process plants use to capture the energy in sunlight is complex. Plants absorb the chemical carbon dioxide gas and combine it chemically with water to produce a third chemical called glucose. Glucose is actually a form of sugar. All sugars are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates contain energy. The process of producing carbohydrates from carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight is called photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis can be written out in the form of a short statement, usually called a word equation, as follows:
Carbon dioxide gas + water + sunlight _ glucose + oxygen gas

Cellular Respiration
Plants store the energy they capture from the Sun through photosynthesis in the form of glucose. However, plants need a continuous supply of energy for functions such as growth, repair of tissues, and reproduction. The process plants use to obtain the energy from the glucose is called cellular respiration. In cellular respiration,…