June 14, 2015
Factors Affecting Heart Rate and Blood Pressure
1. What is the difference between heart rate and blood pressure?
Heart Rate is the number of times your heart beats per minute; whereas, blood pressure is the force the heart exerts against the walls of the arteries as it pumps the blood out to the body. The unit of measurement for heart rate is “BPM” (beats per minute); whereas, the unit of measurement for blood pressure is “mm Hg” (millimeters of mercury).
2. What is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
The numbers for blood pressure represent 2 measurements (systolic and diastolic pressure):
The pressure as the heart beats and forces the blood into the arteries
Normal systolic blood pressure is 120 or below
The pressure as the heart relaxes between beats
Normal diastolic blood pressure is 80 or below (for an adult age 20 or over)
3. What are some lifestyle choices that may contribute to high blood pressure?
A lifestyle dominated by excessive consumption of alcohol, stress, cigarettes, fast food, lack of physical activity, and lack of sleep may contribute to a human being diagnosed with high blood pressure.
1. How can you isolate factors that affect blood pressure and heart rate?
The group can isolate factors that affect blood pressure and heart rate through the means of physical observation and experiment. For example: Getting a classmate who once was in a position of rest to sprint for a total of 200 meters will increase his/her overall blood pressure and heart rate.
1. Make and record a hypothesis about the effects of at least two different factors on heart rate and blood pressure.
Factor #1: Alcohol
Consuming too much alcohol can have negative effects on our body. Alcohol causes the blood vessels in the arms and legs (the peripheral vascular system) to dilate. Blood pressure drops, and the heart therefore must pump faster and harder to heed the blood flowing.
Factor #2: Smoking
Smoking causes the blood vessels in the arms and legs to become narrower. This factor can contribute to chromic high blood pressure.
Factor #3: Deep Breathing Exercises
This is a technique used to reduce stress levels, which can often cause a person’s heart rate and blood pressure to rise.
Factor #4: Quick Physical Activity
A quick sprint can lower one’s heart rate and cause blood pressure to rise for a short period of time. This technique can lower one’s chances of being diagnosed with heart or cardiovascular disease.
Plan and conduct:
1. working in a group, prepare a list of ideas for testing your hypothesis. Make sure your ideas use only the materials available in your classroom.
Ideas for person being tested on:
- Perform a given number of jumping jacks
- Sprint for 100 meters
- Do deep breathing exercises
- Perform a given number of push ups
- Do yoga
2. Decide on one idea you can use to design an experiment that can be conducted in your classroom.
Our two main ideas for experimentation are getting one group member to perform a given number of jumping jacks, and getting another group member to do deep breathing exercises.
3. What will be your independent variable? What will be your dependent variable(s)? How many trials will you run? Remember that you should test one variable at a time. Plan to collect quantitative data.
Independent Variable: “Change in Heart Rate”
Dependant Variable: “Number of Jumping Jacks/Number of Breaths Taken”
4. Outline, step by step, a procedure for your experiment. Assemble the materials you will require.
Step #1: Attain number for at rest blood pressure
Step #2: Let group member perform 25 jumping jacks
Step #3: Attain heart rate/blood pressure after person performs 25 jumping jacks
Step #4: Let person take a 3 minute resting time
Step #5: Repeat steps 2-3 two more times
*Note: Same overall