Business Communication Quarterly 2013 F Essay

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Business Communication

Intercultural Communication Apprehension and Emotional Intelligence in Higher Education: Preparing Business Students for Career Success

Lisa T. Fall, Stephanie Kelly, Patrick MacDonald, Charles Primm and Whitney Holmes Business Communication Quarterly 2013 76: 412 originally published online 18 September 2013
DOI: 10.1177/1080569913501861

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Gudykunst (2005a, 2005b) summarized that scholars of intercultural communication take one of three approaches: (a) theories asserting that culture and the communication process itself have been combined (e.g., constructivist theory, coordinated management of meaning, speech code theory); (b) theories describing or explaining how communication changes among different cultures (e.g., Hofstede’s dimensions of culture variability, face-negotiation, expectancy violation theory); and (c) theories that describe or explain effective communication between people for different cultures (e.g., cultural convergence theory, effective decision making theory, anxiety/uncertainty management theory).

Intercultural communication researchers urge looking beyond geography to define cultures. Intercultural communication research that utilizes political states or geo-graphical regions to distinguish cultures could misrepresent results because culture is

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dictated by beliefs and lifestyles rather than geography (Casrnir, 1999). Intercultural communication is not purely contained within the confines of verbal interaction but can include sign systems and behaviors, all of which may be influenced by any histori-cal backdrop between interacting cultures (Durant & Shepherd, 2009).