Masculinisation theory- Freeda Adler: a convergence of gender controls expectations was brought about by feminist movement. Women are able to achieve what they want to achieve. Equal rights between men and women. She said she believes that this had contributed to a rise in female crimes. The phenomenon of female assertiveness was a rise in tide in our society and that it was a wave that had not yet crested and the assertiveness that could be an aggressiveness that could be crime that was reaching a level close to that set by males. Teenage females in theory could be as violent as males. The theories that had been there to this date, they were males based and this was the first in your face female one. Just because females are females, doesn’t mean crime is beyond them.
She did a study and she studied school girls to see if they were involved in violence and at what level.
Novack’s Decleration of faith- All of us act in certain ways because we see the world in certain ways. the way we act is largly defined on the way we see the world.
Artz- Canadian women’s violence is alive and well in women. Aggravated assault climbed three times higher since 1960, robbery 4 times, homicide increased by a third. Female crime grew at twice the rate as the males. These females are part of a cultural shift that are becoming more assertive, fastest growing group of violent offenders on the planet. Girls murder or arson jumped 120% between 1986-95. Canadian girls are more violent than US. As these rates increased, at the same time, their suicide rates dropped 50% since 1970. Because young women had been self directing anger, when life got hard they would self inflict. When girls can other direct their anger than their feel more liberated.
Army women, are expected to fight alongside men. Business women are aggressive. Women’s sports. Never does it mean harming someone. Times are changing and we must see females as who they are. Accept that women are becoming greater in crime.
Glazer- looks at the ways in which women could be aggressive. Women of higher status used gossip and higher knowledge to keep other women out. Women can manipulate. She goes to palstan- women are honour killed. (20-40) these murders, other females acted as instigators by letting loose gossip. Started a rumer that was false and spread and cause men to save the family honour. The men were like a loaded gun in the hand of the women.
The shattering of myths:
In modern society we tecch females how to feel socialy. We are told to treat females of a number of self injuring illnesses. Often times their way of venting their rages. Females have been taught to control their rage so they turn it to themselves.
Profiles of the violent school girls
Family- on the surface they appeared normal. Mother and father together and both working. When speacking to the girls, not as important about family life. Ask about mothers... not a positive response. Feared and were physically abused at home. There is a defiance in regards to their families (smoking lying, curfrew after purposely). Very dysfunctional relationship. Damage of personal property.
Peer groups- into cliques and gangs and rules for each. There is sexual behaviour going on in these groups and it is not positive experience for them. Metal, bangers, skaters (girls skaters called betties). They try to aphilitate eachothers but there is a price
Schools and teachers- negative attitudes. Disrespect for teachers. Attitude, damaging school property
Interpersonal social values- violence is okay, moral relativity is very subjective, to hell with the collective rights.
Self concept- girls how low self confidence boys have