This module will introduce you to the study of anatomy. It will begin with a short history of anatomical study and go into some of the modalities used in the study and evaluation of anatomical structures today. We will learn some of the basic directional terms used to describe the orientation of the body. These terms will be used throughout the course as anatomical structures are meaningless without an understanding of orientation and location within the body. Then we will look at basic cellular biology and cell structure. This first module will serve as a foundation for future sections. As we move through the body systems we will look at cell and tissue structure and how this relates to function of the various anatomical structures.
You will be asked to complete one modules and associated workbook assignments on the Pearson site and one short quiz on Learning System every week. These will all be due the Tuesday following the week at 9 AM so plan your time accordingly.
Learning Objectives: • Name and describe some approaches to anatomical study including various medical imaging tools. • Be able to describe anatomical position. • Name and understand directional terms, major body regions, and body cavities. • Understand the importance of anatomical language and how to analyze medical terms. • Be able to identify major cell structures and cell types.
Read Chapters 1 (all) and 3 (ppg 62-79; 81 – 96; 110-111) of your textbook. As you read through these chapters, check this guide to see if there are comments or guides to studying. There are numerous audio and visual files you can access via the online text and the Pearson website that will help you gain an understanding of the materials. When you are finished reviewing the materials you will be asked to complete a workbook of activities that will help you solidify your knowledge of this material.
All terms that are bolded in the text and study guide are key terms you should know and be able to define.
As your textbook points out, the study of anatomy essentially began with the dissection of human cadavers. In the early days, these cadavers were not preserved and there was no refrigeration so you can imagine how unpleasant the activity would have been. To make matters worse, early doctors would routinely perform examinations and dissections on cadavers, and then perform surgery, assist in childbirth or perform medical exams, often without washing there hands first! It is no wonder that 200 years ago a woman was more likely to die as a result of childbirth if she gave birth in a hospital compared to the street.
Anatomy is still a fundamental aspect of medical study but today we have many different ways of doing it. Examination of cadavers (now refrigerated and preserved) is still commonly done. However the use of tools such as radiography, computed tomography (series of radiographs used to construct 3-d image) magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound (sonography) have made the anatomical examination of living individuals possible as well.
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|Radiography: Xrays are |Computed Tomography (CT |Magnetic resonance Immage |Positron Emission Tomographic |Ultrasound: This uses sound waves|
|absorbed into dense structures|scan): CT scan is |(MRI): MRI uses changes in a|Scan (PET scan): The PET scan |that penetrate through fluid |
|and do not expose film. Bone |essentially a series of X |magnetic field to identify |begins with the injection of |filled areas and bounce off of |
|appears white, soft tissue |rays done in slices. By |structures with slight |radioactive isotopes into the |objects of various densities. The|
|appears shades of grey, |compiling slices you can