• White men were entering Indian Territory and forcing them to sign
it away, only after the territory was gone did Indians finally start to
fight and resist forces.
• The Plains Indians (northern, central, southern)
• Native American tribes were very clan oriented, (raised children,
made decisions, and provide food) and relied on bison for food,
clothing and trading products until the white men began killing the
animal for their own needs, lowering the mass number of bison’s.
• The Assault on Nomadic Indian Life
• The government created new reservations for Indians—some groups
peacefully accepted, others fought the US Army—the Medicine
Lodge and Fort Laramie treaty were established as an attempt to
keep peace through money and land.
• Custer’s Last Stand
• The Sioux Indians fought off settlers in order to protect their original
territory; George Custer attacked the Indians in order to remove
them from their land, but the Sioux Indians won the battle, making
the white troops angry and fight harder, eventually to rid the land
of all Indians.
• “Saving” the Indians
• Schools that Indians attended began “killing” their inner Indian and
• Dawes Severalty Act: Indians could comply with the law and become
teaching them white man skills, but Indians did not fall for these
citizens along with receiving either 160 acres of reservation land for
farming or 320 acres for grazing—most did not prosper due to dry
land and alcoholism
• The Ghost Dance and the end of Indian Resistance on the Great Plains
• As an attempt to bring back life to the way it used to be, Indians
began doing the Ghost Dance, which got Chief Sitting bull arrested
and shot, resulting in an Indian-white battle. The Sioux Indians
were decreasing, but at the same time the Navajos Indians were
Settling the West
• Due to the removal of Native Americans, vast amounts of land
opened up in the west, which led to the doubling of agricultural
• First Transcontinental Railroad
• The first railroad stretching across the United States was built by
Chinese, Irish, Mexican-American, and Black workers and finished
on May 10, 1869 to be used for: transportation of soldiers for the
Native American battles; hunters access to bison and other meats;
settlers coming to live in the west; detectives for local police.
• Settlers and the Railroad
• Between 1870 and 1900, over 2.2 million foreign settlers migrated
to the west along with eastern women and families to produce
wheat (northern plains), corn (Iowa and Kansas), and cotton
• Homesteading on the Great Plains
• Congress sold acres of land for very cheap in hopes families would
move and begin more farming, whereas in reality, the land was
dry, houses were full with bugs, weather was harsh, and life was
not easy. Families who stayed a decade or more claimed that life
became easier in sense of farming and chores.
• New Farms, New Markets
• As long as rainfall was heavy and there was high demand for a
product, western farmers made a profit, but if those two conditions
were bad, farmers did not have much to live off of. Technology for
farms was advancing during the 1870s; barbed wire was invented
and efficient laborsaving machinery was more common.
• Building a Society
• Families throughout the west were coming together as a community
• Kansas (1861), Nevada (1864), Nebraska (1867), Colorado (1876),
and applying for statehood through electing state delegates and
creating a state constitution then getting approved by congress.
North/South Dakota, Montana, Washington (1889), Wyoming and
Idaho (1890), Utah (1896), Oklahoma (1907), Arizona and New
• Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, and