Chapter 1 Bio Definitions Essay

Submitted By melaniehope
Words: 4373
Pages: 18

------------------------------------------------- Chapter 1 word definitions
A-helix is a spiral structure in a macromolecule that contains a repeating pattern and is the distance to the apex an exponential function of the angle indicating direction from the axis. Amino acid is the building block of protein in which each is coded for by a codon and linked together through peptide bonds. Amphipathic contains both polar and nonpolar regions in their structure. Anion is an ionic species having a negative charge. Atom is the defining structure of an element, which cannot be broken by any chemical means. A typical atom consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons with electrons orbiting this nucleus.
Autoradiography A process by which radioactive materials, often though not exclusively incorporated into cell structures, are located by exposure to a photographic emulsion forming a pattern on the film corresponding to the location of the radioactive compounds within the cell. A technique in which radioactive molecules make their location known by exposing photographic films or emulsions.
B-sheet is a structure that occurs in many proteins and consists of two or more parallel adjacent polypeptide chains arranged so that hydrogen bonds can form between the chains.

Bioinformatics is a branch of biological science which deals with the study of methods for storing, retrieving and analyzing biological data, such as nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) and protein sequence, structure, function, pathways (neural pathways included) and genetic interactions.

biological functionality biomolecules is any molecule that is produced by a living organism, including large macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. Buffer is a solution containing either a weak acid and its salt or a weak base and its salt, which is resistant to changes in pH. Carbohydrate is a component of food that supplies energy to the body. One of the three macronutrients Three broad categories of carbohydrates are sugars, , and fiber. Except for fiber and resistant starch, carbohydrates cause more and faster blood glucose rises than the other macronutrients. Carbon is a naturally abundant nonmetallic element that occurs in many inorganic and in all organic compounds. Cell is the basic structural unit of all life forms on this planet. Chemical bonds forces of electrostatic attraction between atoms and molecules. (bonds differ in strength as a result of the atoms involved). Chemotroph is an organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Cholesterol is a lipid steroid that is essential in the structure of animal cell membranes. (insoluble in water and transported in the blood bound to lipoproteins). Compounds pure substances made up of more than one element. Condensation polymerisation a reaction whereby small molecules (monomers) are chemically bonded into a large linear or branched molecule (a molecule of water is eliminated when 2 monomers are bonded together) Conformation is the shape of a molecule that is determined by the 3 dimensional arrangement of its atoms and bonds (important for molecule function) covalent bonds a bond between two or more atoms that is provided by electrons that travel between the atoms nuclei, holding them together but keeping them a stable distance apart. sharing electrons between two or more atoms. Denature the process by which the structure of a protein is changed by factors such as acidity and temperature. The change in structure often destroys the shape of molecule and results in loss of function. Disaccharides 2 monosaccharides molecules joined by a glycosidic bond. Disulphide bridges is a strong coralent bond between two sulfhydryl groups (s-s bonds) this bond is very important