Chapter 1 Outline Essay

Submitted By SMK20
Words: 991
Pages: 4

Ancient Outlook of Children and Childhood
Plato
Believed that children were born with a natural wisdom
Aristotle
Believed as children grow, they learn
John Locke
Believed children were born for their lives to be determined as they grow
Believed they were blank slates
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Believed children are born with instincts that unravel with time
Child Development History
Industrial Revolution
Children worked horribly long hours and under bad conditions
Charles Darwin
Wrote baby biographies
Analytical conclusion on children’s lives
Enthused scientists about his theory on evolution
G. Stanley Hall
Founded first scientific journal
Founded child-study institute
Believed child development was based on evolutionary theory
Alfred Binet
First mental tests
(IQ tests)
Sigmund Freud
Experiences in childhood lead to patterns in adulthood
John B. Watson
Founder of behaviorism
Behaviorism
Measurement of observable behavior
Reward and punishment system
B.F. Skinner lays claim to Watson’s work

Society For Research in Child Development
S.R.C.D.
Promote children wellbeing
Main organization for child development research
Known as science in the 19th century
1933 Founded
Promotes multidisciplinary research
Research in order to shape family policy
Example
Federal laws
Federal policy
Mandates
Funding
Applied developmental science
Further healthy development
Central Theories for Child Development
Theory
Make predictions about child development
Leads to a hypothesis
Biological Theories and Thoughts
Maturational Theory
Development is preset
Discarded due to lack of proven research
Ethological Theory
Evolutionary aspect
Behaviors adapted
Critical Period
Specific type of learning
Before/ after learning near impossible
Imprinting
Lasts about a day
Emotional bond
Does not matter what it is, so long as it moves
Scientific Perspective
Psychodynamic Theory
Solving problems through different years in ones’ life
Oldest scientific perspective on child development
Sigmund Freud
Specialized in diseases of the nervous system
Believed early childhood memories established patterns in adulthood
Studied Psychodynamic theory
ID
Instincts and forces in the human behavior
Ego
Rational part of one’s personality
Superego
The self-worth/ moral part of the personality
Erikson’s Theory
Erik Erikson
Expressed the psychological and Social parts of conflict
Early stages play a major role in later years
Eight stages of psychosocial development
Eight stages of psychosocial developmentCHART
Trust VS Mistrust
Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt
Initiative VS Guilt
Industry BS Inferiority
Identity VS Identity Confusion
Intimacy VS Isolation
Generativity VS Stagnation
Integrity VS Despair
Psychosocial Theory
Development consists of stages
All have different sets of stages
Learning Point of View
John Watson
Believed experience lead you to adulthood
Operant Conditioning
Consequences determines whether one continues the same action
Reinforcement
Consequence that allows one to be more likely to have a consistent behavior
Punishment
Decreases the likeliness of one’s behavior
Imitation
Learning by doing what those around them do
Observational Learning
Learning by watching those around them
Social Cognitive Theory
Albert Bandura
Social Cognitive Theory
Complex view of reward, punishment, and imitation
Calls his theories ‘Cognitive’
Believes that actively trying to understand what is going on in the world
Cognitive-Development View
Cognitive-Developmental Perspective
How Children’s thinking changes as they grow
Jean Piaget
Naturally try to make sense of the world
Piaget’s Cognitive Development
Four stages
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
Contextual Perspective
Culture
People and background form ones culture
Lev Vygotsky
Theorists who emphasized cultural context in children’s development
Development Perspective…