Chapter 11 Notes Essay

Submitted By lsimon69
Words: 1504
Pages: 7

Logan Simon
World History AP
Chapter 11 Notes
A. Legacy of Chinggis Khan in Mongolia 1. His spirit banner was destroyed by Communists in 1937 a. According to Mongol tradition that means his soul was destroyed 2. Late twentieth-century revival of Chinggis Khan’s memory 3. 2006 was 800th anniversary of foundation of Mongol Empire B. The story of the Mongols is an important corrective to historians’ focus on agriculturalists. 1. Pastoralists had a lasting impact on development of Afro-Eurasia
II. Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of Pastoral Nomads A. Economies focused on livestock production emerged around 4000 b.c.e. 1. Dependent on horses, camels, goats, sheep, cattle, yaks, reindeer 2. Pastoral societies developed in: a. Grasslands of Eurasia and sub-Saharan Africa b. Arabian and Saharan deserts c. Subarctic regions, Tibetan plateau d. Not in Americas: lack of large animals for domesticating B. The World of Pastoral Societies 1. Standard features of pastoral societies: a. Generally less productive than agricultural societies b. Needed large grazing areas c. Populations much smaller than in agricultural societies d. Lived in encampments of related kinfolk, usually common ancestry in male line e. Clans sometimes gathered as a tribe; could absorb unrelated people f. More egalitarian than sedentary societies, but sometimes distinguished between nobles and commoners g. Women usually had higher status than in sedentary societies i. Fewer restrictions ii. Greater role in public life iii. Involved in productive labor h. Mobility—nomads 2. Pastoralists had deep connections to agricultural neighbors a. Sought access to foodstuffs, manufactured goods, luxury items b. Especially in inner Eurasia, longing for civilized products encouraged formation of nomadic states 3. Formation of nomadic states was difficult a. Charismatic leaders like Chinggis Khan could make a series of tribal alliances that became powerful states b. When formed, almost the whole male population (and some women) became warriors 4. Cultural interaction with agricultural lands a. Inner Eurasian nomads adopted Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Manichaeism at various times 5. Mastered environments unsuitable for agriculture a. Brought food-producing revolution and significant human presence to fringe regions b. Life changed significantly for Inner Asian steppe peoples with introduction of horseback riding ca. 1000 b.c.e. C. The Xiongnu: An Early Nomadic Empire 1. Mounted warfare made nomadic empires possible 2. The Xiongnu (in Mongolian steppes north of China) formed an important early confederacy (from Manchuria to central Asia)