Chapter 2 - History of Psychology Essay

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History of Psychology
Late 18th:
Discipline of psychology began
Come from medical & philosophy => psychology has 2 parts
20th century - CNS
Conscious comes form brain
Brain deeply integrated in body – connect to world
Science is large set of social, historical, political, ideological, economic -> one thing change -> change view of other things
In Western – religious barrier to get understand human body
Human is different from animal -> can’t understand human by just replicate from studying of animal
Post “enlightenment”
Supposed rational
Self-interest human
Deep divide b/t cognition & emotion
Emphasis on individual
Post biological revolution & neuroscience
Remerging of cognition & emotion
Emphasis interdependence b/t individual & group
History of psychology moving from deeply to integrating
Human Psychology as Mechanistic Processes
Descartes: 1600s
Body is machine
Controlled by hydraulics (fluids) & mechanics (levers)
Consistent with the mechanistic zeitgeist of the time – ex: water statues & clocks
Mind Body Dualism:
Human different from animal b/c the MIND
Body operate based on mechanical theory
Mind is different thing – for freewill, consciousness and soul
Much of psychology emerge from this dualism
Study an Immaterial Mind
Wilhelm Wundt:
2 stimuli that struck senses at same time would be perceived at the same moment
Pendulum was way down when heard belt
1/10 second lag between seeing and hearing
1/10 second to reorient their attention to one to another
Darwin:
Evolution of natural selection
Darwin’s ideas were influenced by:
Catastrophism: giant change happen quickly uniformitarianism : small thing change -> add to big change – ex: erosion
Animal try to max it off-spring but constraint equal natural system
There is reason something happen – the reason usually in past or cross generation
William James: Functionalism
Major emotional crisis: determinism v.s freewill
As person, accept freewill
As scientist, determine
Thinking is dynamic relationship between organism & environment => focus on problems of adaption – individual try to adapt to environment
Should be practical science -> apply human welfare, happiness...
Habit: individual…