New Spain- quest for gold and conversions: they went deep into the present-day United States
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado: searched in vain for the legendary seven golden cities of Cibola. He discovered the Grand Canyon, the Pueblo peoples of the Southwest, and the grasslands of Kansas.
Hernan de Soto: with a force of 600 Spaniards were cutting a bloody swath across what is now northern Florida and Alabama, battling the
1565: St. Augustine- importance of; being the first permanent European settlement in the future United States.
Sea dogs- impact on English/Spanish relations; English pirates who stole gold off Spanish ships. They will actually stop these ships, board them, and take everything.
The Comprehensive Orders for the New Discoveries: 1573; the Spanish new policy. Prior to this, it was based on the conquistadors who were in charged and now it is the shift of more religious conversion.
Spanish Franciscan Friars- impact on Native Indians; they learned the Indians’ language, but they also systemically attacked the Natives culture. They encouraged the Indians to talk, cook, and dress like Spaniards. Religious conversion, cultural assimilation, and forced labor went hand in hand. The Franciscans ignored the laws that protected the native peoples and allowed privileged Spanish landowners (encomenderos) to extract goods and forced labor. The Native Americans initially tolerated the Franciscans because they feared military reprisals and hoped to learn the friars’ spiritual secrets, but when Christian prayer failed to protect their communities from European diseases, droughts, and raids by nomadic Apaches and Pawnees, many Puebloes returned to their ancestral gods.
Juan de Onate; led 500 Spanish soldiers and settlers. They seized corn and clothing from the Pueblo peoples and murdered or raped those who resisted.
Indian shaman- Pope- goals and results; to go back to their traditional culture. Rise up and retain and resist the invaders.
Northern Spanish outposts: St. Augustine and Santa Fe; St. Augustine is the
In 1610, the Spanish returned and founded Santa Fe, and reestablished the missions and forced-labor system.
Jacques Cartier; In the 1530s he claimed the lands bordering the Gulf of St. Lawrence for France.
Samuel de Champlain- Quebec 1608- importance of; He founded the first permanent French settlement of Quebec. It was a fur-trading post.
King Louis XIV: royal colony- New France/policies discourage migration/economic base; would not allow religious dessenters (huegonots) could not go to the colony. He did not push women and children to go. Not encouraging stability. Their whole economic base was on fur.
State policies discouraged migration. Also, the Catholic Church banned the Huegots from migrating to the colonies in fear of them winning converts and taking over the colony. Plus, the French legal system gave peasants strong rights and to their village lands, whereas migrants to New France faced an oppression, aristocracy and church dominated feudal system.
Hurons; one of the Indians who were French allies. Between 1625 and 1763, hundreds of French priests lived among Hurons.
Five Nations of New York- Iroquois; Iroquois nations that were combining in huge northeast. The main tribe of this nation was the Iroquois. They were trying to combat other Native American tribes and invaders. They were English allies. They were located in central New York.
Jacques Marquette; in 1673, he reached the Mississippi River
Robert La Salle; in 1681, he traveled down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico
Louisiana- origin of name; region named in honor of King Louis XIV.
Importance of New Orleans to control of the Mississippi River; to exit the Mississippi’s to get into the gulf, you to go through New Orleans, there for, who ever owns New Orleans controls the Mississippi.
Coureurs de bois- “runners of the woods”; French fur traders
French Jesuit Missionaries – relationship…