Industrialization changed the nature of European overseas expansion. Industrialization brought new motives for expansion. Markets and raw materials were needed for manufacturing.
The Shift to Land Empires in Asia
Europeans weren’t interested in expansion because it was too expensive. Slow communication led to local admiration. The Dutch paid tribute to Mataram because they wanted a monopoly on the spices. In the 1670’s the Dutch helped the Mataram sultans against tribal conflicts and in return they got more land. After that every time the Dutch helped they demanded more land and eventually they ruled Java.
Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in India
The British experience was like the Dutch in Java. The East India Company was attracted to local wars when the Mughal Empire was on its downfall. Indian disputes allowed the British to gain territories. The rise of the British ticked off the French and it enhanced the rivalry. The British victory at Plassey was a key battle because the British now had control of the Bengal region.
The Consolidation of British Rule
As the British gained land the Indian princes fought each other to gain territory. This weakened India more because India wasn’t united. The British were able to takeover because some Indians wanted to fight with the British—good pay, treatment, and uniforms. Eventually there were more Indians in the army than actual British soldiers. India soon became the main source of raw materials for the British.
Early Colonial Society in India and Java
At first the British were allowing the original rulers to rule and all they did was keep traders and officials above the existing social system. Europeans adopted many Indian things in various degrees like clothes, food, dancing, etc. There was some racial…