Civil War Terms Essay

Submitted By zrs1995
Words: 8628
Pages: 35

Sugar Act (1764) Revenue-raising act passed by the British parliament on sugar and sugar products
Was stricter enforcement of earlier Molasses Act of 1733
Angered colonists, taxation without representation
Stamp Act (1765) Direct tax on the colonies requiring all printed materials (legal documents, deeds, newspapers, magazines, etc.) to have a stamp on them
Colonists had to pay stamp collectors to get stamps
Declaratory Act (1766) Repealed the Stamp Act
...but, said parliament "had, hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America ... in all cases whatsoever"
Meant more acts would be coming
Townshend Duties (1767)Tax on luxury goods (lead, glass, paper, ink, etc.)
Supposed to be good for the colonies, creator thought it'd be taken well
Colonists angered, sent Circular Letter, did not appreciate taxation without representation
Boston Massacre (1770) Violent confrontation between British troops and Boston mob
Boston mob taunted British soldiers, shots broke out, 5 Bostonians killed
Caused inflamed sentiment toward British, exaggerated in the papers
Tea Act (1773) Act designed to help out the floundering British East India Company
British tea only would be sent to the colonies, at a reduced price
Colonists angered because this undercut merchants, meant less selection (no Dutch tea); caused Boston Tea Party
First Continental Congress (1774) Convention of delegates from 12 of 13 colonies in response to Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts: included Quebec Act, expanding size of Canada, as well as taking over Boston until tea costs repaid)
Considered boycotting British trade, sent a petition to King George III
Battles of Lexington and Concord (1775) Beginning of the Revolutionary War
British Redcoats sent to go seize the colonists' arms and generals
Paul Revere and other horsemen went from Boston to warn of the impending attack
Series of small skirmishes, British were attacked on the road all the way back to Boston
By the end of the day, 273 British Casualties, less than 100 American casualties
Battle of Saratoga (1777) Most important battle of the Revolution
Would be the key to getting foreign recognition
General Burgoyne heading down from the North towards (this location), met by Horatio Gates
Benedict Arnold help win the battle for the Americans by flanking around
Significant because now France would join the war on the side of the Americans, not the British
Battle of Yorktown (1781) Washington, de Grasse, Lafayette, and the Comte de Rochambeau plan a 3 prong strategy
General Cornwallis established base at (this location) on a peninsula
French navy block off any naval escape, Washington, Rochambeau and Lafayette attack from the East
Americans win the battle, Cornwallis surrenders
British would give up trying to suppress the rebellion after this battle
Federalist Americans in favor of ratifying the U.S. Constitution
Included Alexander Hamilton*, James Madison*, and John Jay who wrote the Federalist Papers, urging ratification
Would eventually convince all of the colonies to ratify, join the new nation
Anti-Federalist Those who were against ratifying the new proposed constitution
Thought that it gave the federal government too much power
Wanted to preserve certain civil rights
Their concerns were addressed in the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution (Bill of Rights), the First Amendment guaranteeing right to Speech, Press, Assembly, Religion, Petition
Shay's Rebellion (Daniel Shay) (1787) Uprising in Massachusetts led by farmer
Started over financial difficulties for colonists
Caused concern about the stability of the Articles of Confederation Government
Constitutional Convention (1787) Convention called to address the problems with the Articles of Confederation
Resulted in a new government, with the U.S. Constitution as its foundation
Figured out the Senate and House (equal