The Psychodynamic theory was founded by Sigmund Freud who used it to suggest the idea that all human behaviour was a result of happenings in the unconscious and childhood experiences (McLeod, 2007). Since this theory was used to treat mental illnesses as well, Freud put forward a method of treating psychosis by proposing the therapy of psychoanalysis. However, as McLeod (2008) explains, many of Freud’s followers disagreed with some of his theories and changed certain aspects of them. One of them was Carl Jung who evolved Freud’s idea of the unconscious and psychoanalysis and came up with the treatment of psychotherapy. The following discussion will be critically analysing Jung’s psychotherapy and comparing it to the more recent Humanistic approach and one of its therapies which was suggested by Carl Rogers; the Person Centred Therapy (Dryden, 2002). The humanistic approach –which was brought about as an answer to the psychodynamic and behavioural approaches- emphasises on the idea that all humans strive to become their optimum self (College, 2002). College also mentions Roger’s Person centred Therapy and describes it as a form of counselling that helps the client find their ‘real’ self.
This paper will highlight a few of the similarities and differences between the two therapies mentioned above. Some of the points which will be tackled will be the difference in therapeutic relationship between the client and counsellor and the area of the client’s life they focus on. It will also compare the aims of the therapies and the different techniques that they use. Furthermore, the discussion will look at how effective each therapy is.
The first point that can be looked at is the therapeutic relationship between the client and the therapist. In Jungian Psychology, the relationship between patient and counsellor is described through transference. Daniels (2011) explains how Jung likened it to a chemical reaction which transformed both the client and the counsellor if it worked. He describes how Jung believed the patients redirection of feelings for another person onto the analyst and the counter transference was the key to treatment. This is supported by Cashdan (1988) who described 4 types of transference and claimed therapeutic relationship to be a form of treatment. Other authors such as Dryden (2002) depict Jungian therapy to be somewhat formal with boundaries between the analyst and the patient. Dryden also describes the counselling as passive and receptive instead of directive and active. He compares this to the Person centred approach which focuses on the therapist’s authenticity and their emotional involvement. College (2002) adds to this view by voicing that the therapeutic relationship in the person centred therapy is one of trust where the counsellor can relate to the client and be dependable. This highlights a huge difference between the two therapies as it shows that the therapeutic relationship between the client and the counsellor is completely different. Further contrast can be seen from Gross (1992) through the explanation of how –unlike in the psychodynamic and behavioural therapies- the therapy gives precedence to the client (cited in Rogers, 1951). However, Tudor et al (2004) describe in their book how the Person Centred therapy emphasises on the relationship between the client and the therapist and this can also be said for Jung’s psychotherapy (p.35). Further similarity can be seen as they cite Rogers (1951) and his belief that transference existed (p.59). Support of likeness between the therapies can also be found from Shedler (2010) who expressed relationship between therapist and client to be an important factor and on the same level as the clients own interpersonal relationships. These therefore suggest that the therapeutic relationship in both the therapies may be