Module Leader: Dr. Nathalie Van Meurs
Submitted by: Raheel Amir Awan M00346290
Date: 17 Dec. 2012
Literature review on subject of what are cultural differences in management? Using the guidance and articles provided in class and submitting works each seminar.
Culture is the full range of learned human behaviour patterns. The term was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist Edward B. Tylor in his book, Primitive Culture. Culture is a powerful human tool for survival, but it is a fragile phenomenon. It is constantly changing and easily lost because it exists only in our minds. Hofstede define difference in culture and similarities in cultures. He draws his own boundaries for social grouping and makes his own geographic limits. Hofstede said that all the members living in one nation can have different cultures. Hofstede said that national and occupational cultures are depending on the early learning of a person from society. But occupational culture can be similar to national culture up to some extent. Culture can remain isolated and stable for some time but with the time people like to adopt new things and it the part of their culture. Hofstede provided us with the four well known cultural value dimensions. He gathered the data from IBM (multinational company) 66 different national samples. The four dimensions are • Power distance • Uncertainty avoidance • Individualism versus collectivism • Masculinity versus feminist Hofstede model of national culture differences mainly focusing on USA and WESTERN countries and have some problematic and confusing points which are yet to solve. Theories and action are needed to understand the change, power, multiple influence, variety and individual subjects.
Social Values Schwartz suggested that two dimensions of Hofstede about value structure can be arranged into 10 motivational distinct orders along two major dimensions. Hofstede only uses country level scores but Schwartz provided the dimensions at country level and individual level structure as well. Hofstede and all other professors said that cultural level and individual level structures are different to each other but then the issue arises about social value structure. Where social value structure stands? If manager had some issue and differences then the values at individual level can be more affected then values at country level structure. But both individual and country level structure can be helpful for managers. According to Hofstede cultural values can be derived from individual level response. Schwartz said that there are two dimensions at individual level structure.
Open to changes versus conservation.
Self-enhancement versus self-transcendence Schwartz followed Hofstede with two dimensions but by introducing a third dimension Social Value. Glick said that social value structure is more similar to Schwartz country level structure then individual level structure. Rohan said that social value structure is more similar to Schwartz individual level structure then country level structure. Management literature suggested that individual level structure derived from social level values is more similar to country level value structure derived from self-rating. Individual level structure derived from self-rating is a bit different. Studies show the similarities between individual level structure and country level structure. So if we can say that social level structure is also similar to both individual and country level structure. But Hofstede said there are two structures while Schwartz talks about three different structures. Mostly