Prepared by: HRMT 226 Human Resources
April 12, 2013 Table of Contents
Introduction 3 Planning 4 Data Collection 4 Data Analysis and Application 6 The Nature of Job Analysis 7 Steps in Job Analysis 8 Human Resource Planning 9 Recruitment and Selection 11 Compensation 11 Performance Appraisals 12 Labor Relations 12 Training, Development, and Career Management 13 Job Design 14 Job Description and Job Specification 15 Components of Job Description 16 Benefits of Job Description 17 Job Specification 18 Competency Based Job Analysis 19 The Implementation of Job Descriptions and Job Specifications 20 Conclusion 22 Lessons Learned 23 References 25
Job analysis is a core function of an organization’s human resource management, helping deliver the desirable workforce to achieve organizational objectives, involving the systematic exploration of the duties, responsibilities, tasks, and accountabilities of a job (Jain, Sloane, & Horwitz, 2003, 83-84). The workforce is dependent on the collective skills, confidence, motivation and experience of employees. These requirements can be gathered and organized through job analysis, which determines the duties of the positions and characteristics of the people hired for the corresponding jobs. The purpose of the present study is to establish how the process of job analysis is undertaken in organizations to determine job necessities, required tools and skills, employee supervision, and employee interaction with the management. This analysis will help managers prepare job descriptions and specifications, which are integral in most HR activities such as recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, industrial relations, and compensation (Dessler & Cole, 2010, 1-3). The importance of job design and analysis in human resource management makes studies in the processes involved indispensable. This study covers the process of job analysis in an organization, analyzing the phases of planning, data collection, and data analysis and application, detailing how organizations implement these aspects of job analysis in an organization.
The process of analyzing jobs starts with planning, where the human resource manager sets the purpose of the job analysis. The manager should get employees involved and empower them to become part of the process, which is crucial in other stages of job analysis such as data collection (Eraut, 1994, 171-172). As a background, the manager should investigate how all jobs fit into the organization. The planning stage also entails determining the reasons for conducting the job analysis, followed by selecting the jobs to be analyzed. The planning stage helps make job analysis a strategic process when implemented in an organization.
The next stage of job analysis entails collecting data about the job, a process that covers various aspects including work activities, working conditions, mechanization and equipment, job performance, required knowledge skills and abilities, and relationship with other employees and superiors. The manager’s role entails selecting the best method for collecting the required data and then engaging in actual data collection (Schwind, 1998, 60-64). The methods of collecting data include observation, interview, questionnaire, employee diaries, and the critical incidence technique among others. The observation method entails analyzing the incumbent of the job position and recording the activities performed in a standardized form. Observation is applicable in job data collection when the position involves fairly routine roles,