My Final Exam Answers
5. The difference between individualists and holists is that individualists believe that there is simply the individual and that there are no strong ties to the environment around it. The holist, however, believes that everything is connected in someway. The tensions that come about usually arise when discussing what things hold moral and ethical value in the environment. The holist will argue that everything living does because we are all a part of everything else and the individualist will cite this argument as flawed because we are not tied to our environment in the way they say.
9. The reasons that Garvey believes that the developed world has a greater obligation to deal with the problems of global warming are quite simple. First, Garvey is insistent that those who emit the most pollution, in this case emissions, should pay for it the most. This seems logical in it that if you cause the most damage to a problem you should be responsible to do the most to fix it. Those who commit larger crimes pay a larger penalty than those who do lesser crimes. In this case the “crime” is emitting greenhouse gases, and those committing the larger crime are the developing countries. Garvey’s second point has to do with economics. Those countries, such as the developed countries, have much more expendable money that can be used to invest in technologies and research, than those developing countries, and therefore are more capable of remedying the problem of global warming. The developed world could cite these reasons as flawed by saying that they shouldn’t have to pay for other people’s problems, and that all countries should just be concerned about their own area. They might also cite ignorance, saying they were unaware that their emissions were negatively affecting other countries.
10. Sustainability is often defined preserving with the goal to possess the ability to continue, or to go on. This largely relates to environmental protection when we discuss different generations. Sustainability means that we protect the environment today so that it will be able to thrive in future generations. I believe this idea of sustainability can be put on the developed world and the developing world; hwoever, I think the developed world holds an obligation to provide the developing world with ways to develop into a sustainable community, to do things different than the developed world already has, so that the developing countries, once developed, can be sustainable and thrive. There is a dilemma presenting here where that if the developing world has the responsibility of worrying about future generations, how are they ever going to worry about themselves and get out of the category of a “developing country.” I believe my solution counters this idea.
17. Leopold believes that the preservation of wilderness is essential. He thinks it to be so important because he believes that we, as community members, are part of the wilderness and thus are preserving our own integrity when we preserve it. Leopold expands the boundaries of his idea of a community to include everything wild. He finds value in everything wild. If we wish to preserve our very being, to maintain our own community, we are morally obligated, in the eyes of Leopold, to preserve our entire community, including the wilderness.
20. I would argue that Leopold is definitely the beginning forms of an extensionist. I say that he is simply a form because he still finds enjoyment in hunting and fishing, which if one believes that all living things hold moral standing, seems to violate their rights to be free of harm. However, Leopold very much so possesses other characteristics of extensionism. He believes that all wilderness should be preserved because it is just as much a part of our community as we are. He gives natural things much value, similar to moral standing, in it that he is aware that