1. What is DNA short for and what is its definition?
Deoxyribonucleic acid the genetic material of a cell
2. What DNA discovery happened in 1950 and who discovered it?
Erwin Chargaff-that the amount of guanine always equals the amount of cytosine, and the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine, these are known as Chargaff’s rules
3. What DNA discovery happened in 1951 and who discovered it?
Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins when an x-ray passes through a molecule, the ray bends and creates a pattern that is captured on film
4. What DNA discovery happened in 1952 and who discovered it?
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that DNA, not proteins, carry genetic information
5. What DNA discovery happened in 1953 and who discovered it?
James Watson and Francis Crick found out that DNA looks like a long, twisted ladder
6. What does the structure of DNA look like?
A long twisted ladder
7. Draw the DNA structure using P for phosphate group and a D for deoxyribose sugar group. 8. What makes up a DNA backbone?
Two sides of the ladder that are made from sugars and phosphate groups
9. What makes up the rungs of a DNA ladder?
A pair of bases that attach to the sugars
10. What is a nucleotide?
The building block of DNA containing a base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
11. How can you tell the difference from one nucleotide to another? differences in size and shape
12. What does A match up with and what does C math up with in DNA?
A matches up with T and C matches up with G
13. What does complementary base pairs mean?
Bases that fit together correctly
14. What is a gene?
Segments of DNA that relate to a certain trait
15. What is replication?
The process in which the cell is able to make copies of DNA molecules
16. What are the steps for DNA replication?
1. The two strands of DNA separate the bases on each side of the molecule are used as a pattern for a new strand
2. As the bases on the original molecule are exposed, complementary nucleotides are added
17. Every DNA strand after replication has one old strand and one new strand of DNA
18. What is genetic mutation?
Changes in the number, type, or order of bases on a piece of DNA
19. What are the three types of DNA mutations
Delectation- when a base is left out
Insertion- when a base is added
Substitution- when one base replaces another
20. Give me an example of each question 19
21. What is a mutagen?
DNA damages from physical or chemical agents
22. What is a genetic mutation?
23. What does it mean when you inherit a genetic mutation
Passed on from parent to offspring
24. What are three ways DNA and RNA are different?
DNA is a double helix and RNA is a single stranded helix
DNA has Thymine as pairing to Adenine and RNA has Uracil in place of Thymine
DNA has the chemical code to be transcribed RNA is the transcribed product
DNA uses deoxyribose and RNA use ribose
25. What pairs with A and what pairs with C in RNA
A pairs with U and C pairs with G
26. What is a three base section of mRNA called?
27. What is a three base section of tRNA called
28. What is the six step process for a cell to make protein?
a. DNA goes into the nucleus
c. mRNA leaves the nucleus and gives the message to RNA
d. tRNA finds the right amino acids
e. tRNA delivers the amino acids to the ribosomes where RNA is locatied
f. rRNA puts amino acids together to build the protein
29. if the DNA strand was the AGTCGA what would the complementary mRNA strand look like?
30. IF the DNA strand looked like this AGTCGA what would be the complementary DNA strand?
31. If the mRNA strand looked like this UCA GCU what would the complementary rRNA