It is a clear sunny day and as you step outside to pick up your mail you hear what you think to be thunder. Simultaneously, the man driving by in front of your house slows down to a stop and begins checking the gauges on his dashboard for signs of any mechanical problem. Thinking little of the events you have just witnessed, you walk back into your house to compose an e-mail to a friend. You step through the door into a silent house, which strikes you as odd because you had left the radio on. As you sit down at the computer, you notice that it also is not running. Assuming that a fuse must have been blown you check the fuse box and are surprised to see that every fuse has been blown. Thinking that you have found the problem, you flip all the fuses and head back to the computer only to find that it still is not working, nor is the radio, the TV, the refrigerator, the security system, or any electronic device in the house. This phenomenon can be explained by only one event: the detonation of an electro-magnetic pulse bomb. An electro-magnetic pulse bomb (EMP) is a non-lethal weapon capable of creating mass destruction and chaos. The purpose of an EMP is not to cause physical harm, but rather to disable, if not destroy, electronics by overloading the circuitry and creating a short circuit that damages semi-conductors. The EMP is an alternative to nuclear weaponry. It does not flatten cities and kill tens of thousands of people as would a nuclear weapon, but it can cause a great deal of damage and has the potential to take many lives. Anyone who depends on a pace maker or other form of life support would die as a result of the loss of power to their required mechanism. More obvious is the effect that an EMP would have on an airplane. With all the electronics required to fly a plane, it is certain that any planes hit by an EMP would fall out of the sky, killing all aboard. In a more long-term situation, massive amounts of food would spoil and it could become difficult for people to find good food and fresh water until power sources are returned to normal. Clearly an EMP attack would seriously impact a country by eliminating communication networks that are necessary for the military to operate, devastating the economy, and crushing the psyche of the citizens. In order to avoid such devastating impact from an attack involving an EMP, it is imperative that the civil sector hardens all its electronic systems so that they would be unaffected by an electromagnetic pulse. The effects of electromagnetic pulse have been known since 1963 when a 1.4-megaton nuclear device was detonated by the United States 250 miles above Johnston Island. This nuclear test unintentionally demonstrated the existence of and threat of an EMP. Over 800 miles away, in Oahu and other parts of Hawaii, several power outages occurred, hundreds of burglar alarms went off, and thirty strings of streetlights were short-circuited (CaJohn). These strange electrical malfunctions were caused by the electromagnetic pulse produced by the nuclear detonation. Each time a nuclear weapon is detonated an electromagnetic pulse is created. This occurs because the detonation of a nuclear device releases gamma rays that react with air molecules of low atomic number, such as Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen. As a result of this reaction, electrons are released from the molecules, which create a radiating electric field, or EMP. This movement of electrons, known as the Compton Effect, resembles the circular waves seen on the surface of a still pond when a stone is thrown in, except the movement is three-dimensional (“E-Bombs and Terrorists”). The intensity and power of the Compton Effect is determined by the number of molecules affected by the gamma rays. Similarly, the distance that the generated EMP travels is a factor in determining its destructive power. During the last half of the Twentieth Century EMPs have been developed to serve different…
Type of radiation
Ranges in air
What is it stopped by?
Penetrating and ionising power
How is it affected by electric and magnetic fields?
How is it commonly detected?
Alpha particles have a range of a few centimetres in air. The range is about 5 - 7 cm.
An alpha particle can be stopped by skin , a sheet of paper and a thin sheet of aluminium foil
The ionising power of alpha is very high and the penetrating power is low as it can be stopped by paper.
An alpha particle…
Wavelength - The distance between successive crests of a wave
Frequency - The rate at which something occurs or is repeated over a particular period of time or in a given sample
Amplitude - The maximum extent of a vibration or oscillation, measured from the position of equilibrium.
Waves in the spectrum (least dangerous to most dangerous):
* Radio waves – Longest wavelengths. Wavelengths range from hundreds of meters to about one millimeter.…
hypoxemia and metabolic acidosis. It also increases the metabolic rate, which can lead to hypoglycemia.
c) According to London, the newborn's pulse should be between 110-160 beats per minute (bpm), but it can be as low as 80 bpm if the infant is sleeping and as high as 180 bpm if the infant is crying. Bpm should be measured by auscultating the apical pulse for one full minute. Respirations should be between 30-60 respirations per minute, and should be counted for one full minute. For blood pressure…
- Weak nuclear force
- Strong nuclear force – holds nucleus of atoms together
- Other everyday forces are one or more of these acting in a specific way
- Force of friction – always parallel to a surface, resisting motion
- Magnetic force
- Electrostatic force
- Normal force – stops things from going through a surface, acts perpendicular to a surface
- Force of buoyancy – causes less dense objects to float in denser liquids
- Force of tension
- Force of gravity
billion years, life appeared in its oceans and began to affect its atmosphere and surface, promoting the proliferation of aerobic as well as anaerobic organisms and causing the formation of the atmosphere's ozone layer. This layer and Earth's magnetic field block the most life-threatening parts of the Sun's radiation, so life was able to flourish on land as well as in water. Since then, Earth's position in the Solar System, its physical properties and its geological history have allowed life…
less land, because they are elevated. This also reduces the amount of collisions and accidents.
Maglev trains use far less energy than other types of transportation.
Maglev trains do not pollute (since instead of using fossil fuels, magnetic fields are used to levitate and propel the trains forward).
Maglev trains are much faster, because they float over the track eliminating rolling resistance and potentially improving the power efficiency.
Maglev trains require Less maintenance (no…
indicator that the Voyager spacecraft had passed interstellar space: a shift in the direction of the magnetic field. Solar plasma produces a special magnetic field because it all comes from the same place. Scientists thought that the magnetic field would shift in interstellar space, where particles fly about in all directions. Despite the evidence that Voyager had departed the heliosphere, the magnetic field direction remained constant making astronomers need another way to confirm it.
Electromagnetism- Magnetic Force
There are two aspects of magnetic
Electrostatic Force, which builds up a charge in an object and can travel in the form of an electron stream
Magnetic Force, which is responsible for the way magnets work
But even though their effects look very different to us they are in fact one in the same.
Electromagnetism acts on objects that have electric charge. This charge creates a field around an object, but a magnetic field is a little different from an electrostatic…
Hello, everyone. I am marco. today, I would like to talk about magnetic levitation. this is my topic, magnetic levitation. let us move on the next slide, that is my outline including introduction ,using and advantage.
What is the magnetic levitation. That is magnetic levitation, magnetic levitation is a method by which an object is suspended above another object with no support other than magnetic field .the electromagnetic force is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational force anybody…