1. Living organisms make high energy compounds
Give a brief account of the way in which the sun’s energy is stored as high energy carbohydrates through the process of photosynthesis. Include a statement of the source of energy, the raw materials needed, the products and a balanced chemical equation for this process.
Photosynthesis is a process where light energy emitted by the sun is absorbed and trapped by the chlorophyll in the leaves of plants and is used to transform water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. All green plants go through the process of photosynthesis as it is their source of life of all organisms. Without this process, no organism on earth will be able to harness and utilize the sun’s energy, leading to everything perishing.
Photosynthesis is an endothermic reaction because it absorbs energy emitted by the sun. Light energy is converted to chemical energy (glucose). This process occurs only in green plants Light Carbon Dioxide (g) + Water (l) Glucose (aq) + Oxygen (g)
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
During this above reaction, 2830kJ of energy is absorbed per mole of glucose formed.
Carbohydrates are compounds made up of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen – Glucose.
During the process of photosynthesis the energy is captured by the plant and is chemically stored in glucose.
Carbohydrates are high in energy because when the compound reacts during respiration they release large amount of energy.
Coal, petroleum and natural gas are regarded as naturally synthesized fuels resulting from geological processes acting on carbon compounds. Process and present information from secondary sources to describe the processes believed to be involved in the formation of coal, or petroleum or natural gas. Include in your answer the origin of the energy in these fuels.
Plants harvest solar energy to live and grow. Normally when plants and animals die they’re decomposed and reverted back to carbon dioxide, nutrients and water back into the environment. This cycles the materials and energy is the living world. However in certain intense pressure and extremely high temperature locations they’re only partially decomposed and the remaining energy is stored as energy-rich compounds (compounds that release vast amount of energy under chemical reactions, stored as chemical energy) known as fossil fuels.
Since living matter is mostly composed of compounds of carbon, the fossil fuels are naturally synthesized by geological processes acting upon the compounds of carbon. During the synthesizing of coal:
Dead plants and animals underground temperature and pressure for millions of years without bacterial action Coal is formed (solid)
The original chemical energy stored inside fossil fuels is from the sun. organisms obtain this energy and directly (plants) or indirectly (plant eating animals) from the sun via photosynthesis.
Process and present information from secondary sources to identify the range of compounds found in either coal or petroleum or natural gas and on the location of deposits of the selected fossil fuel in Australia.
The major Australian resources for coal are:
Bowen Basin in Queensland
Sydney Basin in NSW
Coal is a very important fossil fuel in NSW because this is the main source of generating electricity. Through the burning of coal steam is produced and drives turbines in order to make electricity. Even though coal is found in every state in Australia, since there is very little coal in the western half of the continent Queensland and NSW are out main producers.
Small amounts of sulphur and nitrogen (although Australia’s coal usually has low sulphur content)
2. There is a wide variety of carbon compounds
Describe the 2 allotropes of carbon: diamond and graphite, and account for their physical properties in terms of bonding.
Elements can exist in more than one crystalline form, these forms are…