REVIEW 3: NUTRITION, RESPIRATION & PHOTOSY/NTHESIS
NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
All living organisms need energy and nutrients. The energy is used for many purposes, such as
synthesis → building more molecules
growth → making new cells to grow larger
repair → making new cells to mend injuries
locomotion → moving around in the environment
The nutrients are also used for many purposes, such as
raw materials → the building blocks that new molecules and cells are built from
fuel → used to make energy in cell respiration
Animals have to eat food to both make energy and get nutrients. When animals take in food, it’s called ingestion. When they breakdown the food, it’s called digestion. When they take the food into their cells, it’s called absorption. Since they have to eat other organisms, animals are called heterotrophs. Hetero means “others”, troph means “feeding”, so heterotroph means
“feeding on others”.
Some organisms can harvest the energy from the sun and use it to synthesize the molecules and cells of their bodies. These organisms are plants. The process that allow plants to capture the sun and use it for synthesis is photosynthesis. Because, in this way, plants make their own food, they are also called autotrophs. Auto means “self”, troph means “feeding”, so autotroph means “self-feeding”. In photosynthesis, plants take in simple inorganic compounds (CO2 &
H2O) and build organic nutrients such as sugars (C6H12O6)
1. Nutrition: Organisms take in nutrients (food) for various activities including:
a. Ingestion: ______________________________________________________________
b. Digestion: ______________________________________________________________
Nutrients must be broken down into smaller parts so that they can be
________________________ into the blood and cells of organisms.
Starches are digested into ______________________________________________
Proteins are digested into _______________________________________________
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2. Autotrophic Nutrition:
a. Organisms take inorganic materials ( ______ & ______ ) and convert them into organic nutrients (__________________).
b. Auto = ___________; troph = ___________ so Autotroph = _______________________
c. What process do autotrophs use to do this? ____________________________________
d. Examples of organisms that do this: __________________________________________
3. Heterotrophic Nutrition:
a. Organisms must __________________ nutrients made by other organisms.
b. Hetero = ___________; troph = ___________ so Heterotroph = ____________________
c. Examples of organisms that do this: __________________________________________
d. These organisms include:
4. Write the formula for photosynthesis: chemical formulas
5. Photosynthesis is the process in which sun’s energy is trapped in the chemical bonds of sugar. a. Requires _________________, _________________, and _________________.
b. Makes _________________ (______________) which is used as food in the plant.
c. Waste product produced is _________________.
Provides food for all plants and animals → the whole food chain.
Provides _________________ to breathe.