Small actions lead up to greater events. Rousseau’s “philosophy of the state” describes the fact that the Republican government “receives each member as an indivisible part of the whole”. It is very similar to Dickens’s belief when he describes Gaspard’s cruel death in the chapter “Knitting”. Gaspard’s death leads to an uprising in the hearts of many peasants. The minor action of Gaspard’s hanging starts to build the turmoil inside the commoners’ mind. It then leads to the French Revolution; similar to how trivial events lead up to a massive rebellion. Another event is when the peasants are cheering and crying for the king and queen. Defarge is pleased that the commoner’s are showing their allegiance leading the government on, hiding the thoughts of the rebellions, which in turn insinuates that something would soon lead up to an even larger disturbance. The revolution occurred because the commoner’s were not pleased with the way the government is operating. The nobles and monarchy were flourishing while the peasants were on their knees lapping up spilt wine on the street. With a better government, the people’s thoughts would be heard and the “public interest’s would govern” as thought of in Rousseau’s “Philosophy of the State”. Compared to the bad governing of the king, the Republic’s law would allow the commoner’s voice to be heard which would not lead to an uproar. Rousseau’s belief with Dickens’ knitting chapter, is that if everyone were pleased with the government, there would not be anger in the commoner’s mind, which could lead into a larger riot, as it did for the French Revolution. Another example reproving Dickens’ suggestion that no action is unacknowledged is when Gaspard kills the Marquis out of
Scientific revolution ;
was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when
developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology
Galileo galilei ; was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who
played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance.
Francis bacon ; was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist and author. He
served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England…
Secularism During the Nineteenth Century
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In Europe, the long nineteenth century, (1789-1914) was a tumultuous era of political, economic, and social revolution which created an increasingly secular culture. Europeans of all races and classes looked outside the church to solve societal and familial issues. Gifted intellectuals proposed new philosophies on human thought and behavior, while innovative communication allowed ideas to travel quicker and easier than ever before. By the early…
against its aristocratic and political norms. The Romantic Era was also against the replacement of traditions and emotions as motivators for societies behavior compared to rational ones towards nature. The early stages of the Romanticism Period is also known as the “ages of Revolutions” because it encompassed the American Revolution in 1776, and also the French Revolution in 1789. These early stages also shared the same timeline with the initial part of the Industrial Revolution.
• An increase in trade and commerce led to growth of towns and cities
Humanism – scholars who studied ancient Greek and Roman texts and then tried to recreate the spirit of classical arts, literature, and philosophy.
Secular – non-religious.
Patricians -the social group that was a at the top of the social class system of Renaissance Italy.
Patrons - wealthy people who supported the arts by giving artists money so that the artist could focus on his/her…
John Locke was born on August 29th 1632. He was an english philosopher and
inspired many Enlightenment thinkers with his work. For example he was given the
name ‘Father of Classical Liberalism’’ because he was very good at political philosophy
and liberalism means political philosophy. Locke played a major role in the constitution.
It was Locke's idea to come up with the natural rights LIfe, Liberty, and property, which
in the constitution is referred to Article two and is “ The aim of all political association is
The English Revolution and the French Revolution had a lot in common because they both took place around the same time. The French Revolution was plotted by the person who helped the Americans in their own, Marquis de Lafayette, therefore both the Revolutions have many things in common. Also both the revolutions were revolts of the middle class population against the ruling power. It brought the creation of a Republic and the writing of a Constitution. Also the revolutionaries were found of Enlightenment…
the world and their beliefs came into question by many who had practiced the religion for centuries. The Protestant beliefs led these people to see things and ideas in a new light. The people began to be more acceptant of the idea of change. Political independence and an emphasis on rationalism became the focus of this time period. Many small communities and towns began to form; these small cities were ruled by Kings that wanted to change from the old way of doing things. These kings began to…
Chapter 29: Enlightenment and Revolution
How did the revolutions of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries help to spread Enlightenment ideals? Enlightenment ideas spread when social reformers and revolutionaries claimed and fought for rights denied to them by ruling authorities and elite classes.
What was the focus for the revolutionaries of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries? They sought to fashion a fair and equitable society by instituting governments that were…
Were the political classes right to be concerned with the potentially revolutionary consequences of radicalism?
In the comfortable knowledge of hindsight it is very easy to see the past as inevitable and thus, that it was inevitable that the radicalism of the first half of the 19th century would become moderated and would never pose a serious threat. However, as can be seen by the study of contemporary sources this was not the view at the time and it should not be assumed that with different leaders…
of the writers of the European Enlightenment can be clearly seen in the foundation of American government by the Constitution.
The influence of the Enlightenment on the political development of the American colonies can best be assessed by the study of three authors and their literary/intellectual contributions to political thought, these are:
Two Treatises on Government (1690)
John Locke is responsible for espousing three of the founding principles of what would become the American…