Epilepsy: Central Nervous System

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1. Name of condition

Epilepsy is a condition of recurrent, unprovoked seizures which are paroxysmal transient disturbance of nervous system function that results from the abnormal electric activity of the brain.
• Can be categorized into two main types or groups, depending on the site of the seizures: partial (focal) seizures and generalized seizures. 2. Etiology: causative agent

There are many plausible causes of epilepsy. These causes include genetic, acquired and provoking factors. Epilepsy, or seizure disorder can be classified into four general categories which are based on believed etiology:
• Idiopathic epilepsy: is a predisposition of a single gene inheritance that does not have a neuroanatomical abnormality (cannot be diagnosed
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3. Organ affected
• Cardiovascular System o Seizures manage to interrupt the heartbeat and the whole heart’s normal rhythm, affecting the heart to beat slower than normal, faster or erratically. This condition is named Arrhythmia, it is sometimes responsible for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

• Nervous System o Epilepsy is a condition of the central nervous system.

o Disruption in the electrical activity in the system sets off seizures. Voluntary and involuntary functions of the body are both affected by seizures.

• Muscular System o Some types of seizures affect muscles and they become floppy or tighter than usual.

• Reproductive System
Reproductive problems occur more and are two to three times more common in people with epilepsy than in people who do not suffer from the disorder. o Epilepsy can disrupt a woman’s menstrual cycle, making her periods irregular or stopping them altogether. o A percentage of almost 40 percent of men suffering from epilepsy have low levels of testosterone, which is responsible for sex drive and sperm
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o Breath interruptions that take time during seizures can lead to abnormally low oxygen levels, and may cause sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

4. Stages of the disease development
Seizures can possibly have three phases, and they are:

• Aura:
In some seizure types an aura occurs before the seizure itself, and can alerts a person that a seizure can or about to occur. And it takes time just seconds before the seizures.

• Ictus:
Ictus is the seizure itself, and it is the part that people can visually observe and witness. It can be convulsive, commonly called “grand mal,” or non-convulsive, such as staring and inability to respond normally.

• Postictal:
Postictal stage takes place after the ictus or after the active stage of a seizure. During this stage the body starts to relax, and aftereffects may take place. Postictal stage differs from a person to another, and they vary in type and length. Length of aftereffects can include: o Numbness o Headache o Fatigue and drowsiness o Partial paralysis o Confusion and agitation o Loss of consciousness or unresponsiveness o Loss of bowel or bladder