Erik Erikson, born as Erik Homberger in Frankfurt, Germany on June 15, 1902, was a blonde haired blue eyed boy who was also Jewish. His father had left his mother before he was born. His mother then married Dr. Theodore Homberger, Eriks pediatrician. Because of how he grew up, being made fun of for being either a Nordic or a Jew, this was a big influence on his field of psychology. Erikson started out as a teacher at Harvard and Yale.
Eriksons theory is just like that of Freuds but broken down into 8 stages, and revolves more around society and culture. Freuds theory is of sexual growth while Erikson is about personal growth. Erikson claimed people develop in 3 levels simultaneously. Biological, social, and psychological.
STAGE 1 Infant age 0-1 ( Trust vs Mistrust ) Taught by the mother. This stage is an oral sensory stage. It teaches the baby to trust people by learning consistency, familiarity, and continuity, but doesn't eliminate the possibility for mistrust.
If a baby gets everything it needs, food, water, clean diapers warmth and love, they will grow to know they can trust people. If they grow up being neglected they'll believe others will not always be there to support them when it’s needed. Learning to trust others is the first necessary step to learning how to have loving, supportive relationships with others and to have a positive self-image. STAGE 2 Toddler age 2-3 ( Independence vs Shame and Doubt ) This stage is when a toddler learns to be independent by his or her parents.Young children become independent when caregivers are supportive and give children the safe space to make their own decisions and to experiment with their bodies and problem-solving skills without shaming or ridiculing the child. When children feel shame and doubt, they believe that they are not capable of making valid decisions and not capable of doing everyday tasks. This will begin stunting a positive self-esteem as these small children start seeing themselves as “stupid.” STAGE 3 Preschooler age 3-6 ( Initiative vs Guilt ) Family. During the third stage, he inquisitively explores his or her environment trying new things. When children develop initiative, they continue to develop their self-concept and gain a desire to try new things and to learn new things while being responsible for their actions to some extent. If parents continue to give children a safe space to experiment and learn, the children will continue to find their purpose. If parents try to create too many strict boundaries around what children can do and force too much responsibility on kids, children will feel guilt for their inability to complete tasks perfectly. STAGE 4 School-age Child age 7-12 ( Industry vs Inferiority ) Influenced by your neighborhood and school. An important stage because this is where children develop a new social role and are faced with getting the approval of others when performing certain tasks. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or