Essay On International Tourism

Submitted By katie_7
Words: 1327
Pages: 6

Vellas and Becherel (1995) describe international tourism as, “undeniably one of the most influential phenomena in the economic and social development of our society”. In this essay the range of impacts generated by tourism will be discussed. The main focus will be on the impacts of tourism, but shall also refer to tourism activities, stakeholders and specific destinations. It will identify how the issue of sustainability involves tourism processes and applies to the stakeholders involved in the creation and delivery of tourism product. In Britain and all over the world the evolution of tourism has changed dramatically since the ancient world. Tourism is not a new thing but what people do in their leisure time has widely changed. In Classical times, with Greece developing the Olympics and Rome introducing Spas and Baths shows elements that people visit where experience and attraction existed (Page, 2009.) The middle ages was known for being dark and process declining but also included pilgrims to visit the Holy Land. The Renaissance continued with festivals and fairs and saw a rise in travelling theatres. It was also in this time the activities of diverse social groups emerged. The Grand Tour were key destinations wealthy people visited and tourism reached a high point in the 18th century. This was advanced by the developments in transport and the coming of the train in different areas (Scranton and Davidson, 2007). The coastal areas became popular as a new form of tourism, but created a social differentiation in Britain, with the working and middle class visiting separate areas. This time also seen organised tourism emerge with railway and overseas tours and the first tours to America. The creation of bank holidays encouraged retreats and leisure activities. The development of roads, train also helped tourism develop throughout this time (Page, 2009). The inter-war years saw a rise in travelling overseas and a higher use in passenger liners. Railway lines developed further and hotels and hostels were getting promoted and more widely used. Air travel in this time also grew. Mass tourism became possible and since the sixties world tourism was an opportunity for many people (Page, 2009). Bus and Coach travel grew considerably in the 1930s and is still a popular method to use, as is usually a cheaper way to travel and more environmentally friendly. Airlines became established and is such a popular method to be used, for long and short haul flights. Transport is now cheap and reliable and the development of the internet means language barriers are not as much as a problem and it is easier to book are find out about any place in the world.
Impacts are a very important component of tourism, especially in relation to the host location. Tourism impacts greatly on local and major economies, with both costs and benefits. The income can be a benefit as Page, et al (2001) express how tourism can increase the total economic status of a country. The industry can lead to a rise in Gross National Product (GDP), which shows the standard of living in a country. Factors such as revenue and the multiplier effects from tourism, tourism-connected employment, backward linkages to other sectors, percentage of all tourism associated imports, level of profit repatriation and the position in the product life cycle if together the money stimulated is used in the local economy, can develop the destination (Pender and Sharpley, 2005). Employment is also one of the benefits, with direct, indirect and induced types of employment generated by tourism. Direct employment is jobs in which are now available due to visitor expenditure and directly supporting tourism action. Indirect work is jobs produced from within the tourism supply while induced jobs are created as a result from tourist spending as local people spend money received from tourism (Page, et al. 2001). The jobs could not only lower employment rates in the local area but bring in more