FDA (Food and Drug Administration), USDA (U.S Department of Agriculture), CDC (Center for Disease Control), EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Potentially hazardous foods and cross contamination
Potentially Hazardous Foods- High protein, neutral pH, high moisture examples: milk, sliced melons, garlic in oil, poultry, meat, fish, sprouts, raw seeds, baked/ broiled potatoes, shell eggs, tofu, cooked rice and beans
Cross Contamination- can be avoided through washing hands, washing cook prepping areas, proper storage and handling of raw meats, not contaminating cutting boards
Do you know the proper cooking temperature range, danger zone or time?
Danger Zone (41F- 135F)
145*F (beef, pork, lamb, veal, fish, eggs)
155*F (ground beef)
165*F (Poultry and leftovers)
Can you differentiate the food processing technologies that can improve the food safety?
Pasteurization- food heated to kill pathogenic bacteria, refrigeration required.
Sterilization- food heated to kill all microorganisms and spores, no refrigeration
Irradiation- cold pasteurization, irradiated with gamma rays, electron beams, and x-rays, reduces pathogenic organisms
If you are given a hazard, can you tell which type it would be? Do you know the basics of personal hygiene?
Biological- microorganisms (bacteria, mold, yeast, fungi, parasites, animal prions)
Chemical- cleaning agents, toxic metals, pesticides, and other chemicals
Physical- glass chips, metal shavings, and other foreign material
Personal Hygiene- hand washing and sanitizing surfaces
Make sure that you know types of food borne illnesses with an example for each.
Food Infection- food contains live pathogenic organisms (illness does not appear immediately) ex. Salmonella and Norovirus
Food Intoxication- food contains toxin produced by microorganism ex. Staph & Botulism
Toxin Mediated Infection- food contains microorganisms that produce toxins in the intestines ex. diptheria, cholera, whooping cough
Know which viruses or bacteria is associated with which group of food and be familiar how to prevent that type of illness but do not go too much into details.
Salmonella- from eggs and poultry, avoid cross contamination, temperature, proper cooking
Camplyobacter jejuni- causes diarrhea, fixed by thoroughly cooking food
Listeria monocytogenes- can cause miscarriage, dairy products, sensitive to heating
Vibro vulnificus- raw uncooked shellfish
Staphylococcus (fast cooling, proper refrigeration, & personal hygeine)
Botulism-improper home canning, garlic and oil
Toxin Mediated Infection-
Escherichia coli- ground beef, unpasteurized juice & milk, steam pasteurization, cook ground beef, and avoid cross contamination
Shigellae- poor personal hygiene
Clostridium perfringens- temperature abused foods
Be familiar with plant and marine toxins and top 8 food allergens
Plant toxins- poisonous toxins, oxalic acid (rhubarb), salanine (green potatoes), protease inhibitors (legumes), goitrogens (cabbage family)
Marine toxins- ciguatoxins (contaminated fish), scrombotoxins (tuna, bluefish, mackeral), paralytic (shellfish poison, RED TIDE)
Make sure that you know major parts of a chef’s knife and the application of different types of knives. Do you know the difference between the knives blades?
Chef knife- chopping, slicing, mincing of vegetables, dicing of ham or turkey
Butcher Knife- cut raw meat
Slicer- carving cooked meat
Serrated Knife- bread
Utility Knife- cutting vegetables and fruits, carving poultry
Parts of Knife to Know- cutting edge, point, tip, spine, bolster, heel, rivets, handle (wood or synthetic), butt, tang (better balance preventing hand fatigue or blister), blade
Application of some of the kitchen hand tools such as ladles, strainer, etc.
Spoons (perforated, slotted, plain),…